2. Design Studios and Computation
Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer
3. An Overview of the Architectural Design Studio in the Conceptual Framework of Complex Systems
Gülbin Lekesiz, Ethem Gürer
An Overview of the Architectural Design Studio in the Conceptual Framework of Complex Systems
Gülbin Lekesiz, Ethem Gürer. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 01-26. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.1135984
The architectural design studio is an essential part of architecture education. The method of the studio has been discussed since the first architecture school. Some studies suggest that pedagogy underlying the traditional studio method has been followed for generations without serious examination. The study hypothesizes that the studio behaves like a complex system with features such as being a dynamic process, rich interaction networks, and the combination of various activities. The multidisciplinary study of complex systems in the physical and social sciences over the last quarter-century has led to articulating new conceptual perspectives and methodologies for researchers in these fields. However, examining the architectural design studio from the perspective of complex systems is the original contribution of the study to the literature. Thus, it is aimed to develop strategies to increase the efficiency of the studio. Due to the nature of the pedagogical approach that includes student-instructor interactions, it is not easy to evaluate it with quantitative research methods. Therefore, this study accepted the most appropriate way to observe and assess interactions as a qualitative research method. The study firstly examines the architectural design studio with a system approach and reveals its components. Then, complex systems and the concept of complexity are discussed. After that, the evaluation of the architectural design studio from the perspective of complex systems is presented by literature research and case analysis method. The studio shows complex system features during various activities. For example, stigmergy is when agents interact indirectly by communicating with each other. While the students’ criticizing each other’s projects are considered a direct interaction, the influence of the studio instructor and the other students through a student’s critical-taking process provides indirect interaction. Stigmergy can also be regarded as the counterpart of the chemical pheromone in ants. The pheromones secreted by ants to guide other ants in showing the shortest path while searching for food can be considered the counterpart of the critiques that guide other students in the studio. Within the scope of the article, four different second-year architectural design studios have been analyzed as case studies in terms of their interactions and organization. The scenarios that take place throughout the process are presented through diagrams that express the studio’s actors, relationships, environment, and boundaries. Although these studios were designed independently from the perspective of the complex system, it was observed that many interactions and organizations emerged in the process. The efficiency of complex systems results from the richness of interactions within the system. It is predicted that following strategies that will strengthen and diversify interactions in the architectural design studio will increase studio efficiency. As a result, it was asked what should be considered if the complex system principle is adopted during the setting up of a studio. The principles to be applied to adapt these behaviors are presented. Thus, a new pedagogical approach proposal is being developed for the architectural design studio.
Keywords: Architectural Design Studio, Complex Systems, Self-organization, System Theory.
4. Collective Intelligence Model for Design Studio
Muhammet Ali Heyik, Meral Erdoğan
Heyik, M. A. & Erdoğan, M. (2022). Collective intelligence model for design studio. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 27-58.
While current literature has addressed significant potential of collective intelligence (CI) for collaboration, social learning, decision-making, prediction, knowledge sharing, and distributed problem-solving, there is a lack of research on how effective CI models can be generated for diverse and complex tasks within different contexts of design studios. The pandemic period, in which the institutional infrastructure, educators, and students in architectural education underwent a rapid adaptation, has brought the patterns of the recent past which seem impossible back up for discussion. This research aims to develop a CI model and improve the design process against the main difficulties, especially, in the online and hybrid learning ecosystem. To explore and illustrate how interactions take place in diverse studio contexts, three modules have been created through the consecutive design phases. This study was conducted to understand the significant differentiations and effects according to key factors and attributes that are intrinsically connected with methodological reflections and to explore the role of the CI model on strengthening architectural education. The methodology is comprised of the development and integration of modules, elaborating factors for design studios, and measuring their effects through six experimental studies with the participation of students. Here, cartography-based platforms provide collaboration in module 1 (field study), the interaction among groups in module 2 (design proposals), and consensus in module 3 (user participation). The study integrated and tested CI modules and cartography-based platforms in different contexts (online & hybrid education, urban & rural context, synchronous & asynchronous tools, etc.) to tease out different aspects of their adaptability. The research results based on the process, outputs, and participant experiences reveal the significant effects of the CI modules. Each module has the potential to turn crisis conditions into opportunities, especially during the pandemic period, but also has limitations. On the other hand, the identified limitations such as individualism among students, digital competency, or usability of platforms’ interfaces can be eliminated through ongoing experimental applications. But first of all, like the pandemic period, actual demands from practice will be decisive. To employ holistically from the CI model in the design studio, the experimental practices must be repeated in different contexts through the key factors (group size, task diversity, the usability of tools, pedagogical perspectives, etc.) related to productive, interactive, and systematic design process. The paper contributes a practical model of CI in design education.
Keywords: Collective Intelligence, Design Education, Cartography, Public Space.
5. Basic Design Studio: Understanding and Designing a Comuter Game-Based Approach
Emirhan Coşkun, Gülen Çağdaş
Coşkun, E. & Çağdaş, G. (2022). Basic design studio: Understanding and designing a computer game-based approach. J. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 59-86.
It is an important reality that computational design thinking and approaches constantly change and transform individuals’ perceptions and expressions, and their life practices. This transformation triggers changes in educational understanding, leading to the development of strategies that focus more on learning than teaching. The fact that design education is a system that contains its own dynamics highlights the necessity of approaches to improve students’ awareness, comprehension and ability skills, creative thinking, and questioning abilities. In this context, informal approaches are among the methods used in basic design education in terms of developing students’ problem-solving skills and experiencing the creative design process. It is of great importance to construct informal practices that enable students to develop conceptual ideas and create an experience environment that will create diversity in the representation of ideas. Visualization of the design process, exploration by thinking, experimenting with alternatives and randomness are the layers that form the basis of informal practices. This study deals with the use of computer games, one of today’s popular media, as a reflection of informal education approaches in design education. By using games as an interactive tool, it is aimed to create a learning framework that questions the act of design through learning experience. The study was carried out with first-year students who have just started their education in architecture and design. In order to understand the process and make the right evaluations, the traditional design approach and the game-based approach are considered together in the scope of the study. In addition to the applications made with the students, the design process and outputs were evaluated by conducting interviews and surveys with the instructors of the basic design course. As a result of the study, suggestions have been developed for the game-based approach to include alternative approaches in the context of basic design education, to keep it up-to-date and to create a framework that can provide an effective learning environment.
Keywords: Basic Design, Design Education, Computer Games, Game-based Approach, Informal Practice.
6. Learning By Improvising in Digital Design Era: A Computational Conceptualization of Design Charrettes
Mert Ulusavaş, Ethem Gürer
Ulusavaş, M. & Gürer, E. (2022). Learning by ımprovising in digital design era: A computational conceptualization of design Charrettes. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 87-110.
Charrette is an education method that originates in the 1800s at the École des Beaux-Arts and is still common in art and architecture schools. Charrettes involve short sketching sessions that are based on improvisation and bricolage. In the last few decades, charrettes have changed their meanings. They’ve been used as a brainstorming approach in the early phases of collaborative design to create agreement, determine the project vision, and get the design process started. This study presents the idea of a new type of Charrettes that blends computational design with early brainstorming features of newer Charrettes and the improvisational aspects of the older. Thus, it may foster spontaneity, creativity, experimentation, and production while serving as a tool for collaborative computational thinking. The improvisations during Computational Charrettes state the priorities and intentions of collaborators in a short amount of time; therefore, they make the design process less time-consuming and allow for joint authorship. Improvisation is about attentiveness, real-time, and being in the moment, which is phenomenological notions. The pragmatic and experimental sense of improvisations combined with techné and technological context makes a post – phenomenological framework more viable. Our theory is that recreating the improvisational scene is only possible through understanding the post- phenomenological framework of spontaneous acts. This paper conceptualizes a theoretical framework for Computational Charrettes by examining improvisations’ interpretive, pragmatic, and democratic aspects. Following this methodology, we linked the sub-concepts of the post-phenomenological framework to the brainstorming methods, which can help to hold a Computational Charrette. Improvisations merge with Dewey’s teaching of “learning by doing.” We suggest Computational Charrettes can be part of basic design education studios by learning computational design through collaborative improvisations. Since interpretative, pragmatic, and democratic characteristics are closely related to education, we also included the educational components of Computational Charrettes during the post-phenomenological decomposition of improvisations.
Keywords: Charrette, Computation, Collaborative Design, Improvisation, Design Education.
7. Integrating Computational Fabrication Methods with Architectural Education
Selin Oktan, Serbülent Vural
Oktan, S. & Vural, S. (2022). Integrating Computational Fabrication Methods with Architectural Education. J JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 111-134.
Today, technology is developing rapidly. It changes architectural design and building techniques. To these changes up education system should be updated and be integrated with the novel technology. Tomorrow’s professionals only be educated with this way. To make novel technology a part of architectural education, computational fabrication laboratories should be established and be integrated with architectural curriculum. They have the potential to transform architectural education processes. Within this context, this study tries to integrate computational fabrication methods with architectural education. The aim of the study is to share the process and results of a series of exercises applied to the use of computational fabrication tools and methods at the undergraduate level of architectural education. The study deals with exercise processes in a multidimensional scope. In this framework, constructivist learning processes, the concept of metacognition, the flipped classroom model and portfolio evaluation method played a role in the creation and evaluation of the exercise processes. Integrating computational fabrication laboratories with educational processes brings the student to play an active role in the exercise process. This approach is defined as constructivist learning process. In this way, it is ensured that the students can construct their own thinking and understanding processes. While the verb “teaching” is in question in conventional or objectivist education processes, the verb “learning” comes to the fore in constructivist processes. The instructor does not give the information directly but directs the student to reach the information. Flipped classroom model and portfolio evaluation are used as the methods of this study. The background of the exercises is supported by constructivist learning processes and metacognition concept. Within the exercise processes computational fabrication processes such as CNC laser machining and robotic milling were experienced. Within this study four exercises were performed to make the students experience computational fabrication methods: Unfolding, Tessellation, Sectioning, Folding and Moulding. To evaluate the exercise series success portfolio evaluation method was used. The answers in the portfolio to the questions of “What is the aim of this study?” and “What did you learn from this study?” are compared with the aim and learning outcomes of the exercises. As a result of this study, it is seen that the students’ knowledge on file-to-factory process is increased. They learned how to make ready a parametric model for computational fabrication. Based on student portfolios, it has been determined that students have begun to realize the potentials of computational fabrication tools. The students learned how to use computer aided manufacturing software, and even they could manage to define toolpaths on their own. This shows that, undergraduate architectural education level is not early to teach students computational fabrication tools and software.
Keywords: Computational design, Computational fabrication, Constructivist education, Learning by making.
8. Experience of Interactive Systems in Architectural Design Studio Through Kinetics and Automation
Dilan Öner, Neşe Çakıcı Alp
Alp, N.Ç. & Öner, D. (2022). Experinece of interactive systems in architectural design studio through kinetic and automation. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 135-158.
An architectural design studio course is a critical stage based on creativity in architectural education. At this stage, it is known that it is essential to support creativity in architectural design by using computational methods in teaching and learning by doing and contacting new methods from different disciplines. In order to be able to use the computational knowledge of different disciplines, an educational methodology consisting of various stages was experienced through a three-week transdisciplinary empirical studio study with eight students in the second-year design studio course. In the design studio course, students were asked to design a kinetic surface to be used on the façade of the performing arts centre to be designed in Kocaeli, Izmit district. This experimental architectural design studio work is designed to determine whether students will adapt to the integration and be successful if other disciplines such as kinetics and automation are integrated into this studio work. In addition, by including different disciplines in the creative design process, it has been determined whether the architectural perspectives of the students have developed or not, the possibilities provided by the creative design opportunities through this transdisciplinary, and the architectural theme, architectural function, kinetic system setup can be put forward with the transdisciplinary working philosophy. In the article, within the scope of architectural design studio, firstly, the methodology of inclusion of kinetic systems and developing automation systems in architectural education and the resulting final products (prototypes) were explained. Afterwards, prototypes were evaluated based on certain criteria, and student’s ability to use computational knowledge from other disciplines in the architectural design and production process was assessed. As a result, it has been observed that a transdisciplinary configuration can be easily learned, applied, and adapted in undergraduate architectural education with this studio course. The fact that all students can produce a prototype of the kinetic system, which is the final product that produces a new generation and interactive solution, in a short period of 3 weeks supports this observation. It is understood from the creative and innovative prototypes that, after this experience of making, the students can develop different perspectives on the design action and transform the architectural theme and function into an object through the kinetic system. After the inclusion of different disciplines in the creative design process, it is seen that the students can reflect on the knowledge of the other discipline in the field of architecture. In addition, it is foreseen that they will meet with a new approach, apart from the education understanding they are accustomed to in undergraduate architectural education, and that they will have the potential to reuse the experience and methods they have gained from this study in their future designs.
Keywords: Kinetic Architecture, Interactive Architecture, Architectural Design Studio.
9. The Pedagogical Alignment of Computational Thinking to Architecture Education for the 21st Century Learners
Elif Öksüz Uncu, Gülen Çağdaş
Uncu Öksüz, E. & Çağdaş G. (2022). The pedagogical alignment of computational thinking to architecture education for the 21st century learners. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 159-172.
For the 21st century learners, Millennials and Gen-Z students, the concept of Computational Thinking (CT) has been inclusively affirmed in higher education with different teaching methods and strategies. However, it has been almost a decade that Generation Z students form the main bulk of students in classrooms. And their distinct characteristics from the Millennials have necessitated rethinking educational practices, pedagogies, and teaching approach to provide an optimal and holistic learning environment that meets their learning needs. In this regard, by scrutinizing the contemporary approach to the concept of Computational Thinking, this article discusses the pedagogical alignment of CT in architecture education by addressing its cognitive contributions as a mental tool for the 21st century learners. It highlights the challenges of teaching computational thinking within the current pedagogical framework in architecture education by regarding the learning preferences and attributes of Generation-Z.
Keywords: Architecture Pedagogy, Cognitive Skills, Computational Thinking, Generation-Z, Millennials.
10. Environmentally Responsive Kinetic Structure Design Proposal Through Genetic Algorithms
Muezzinoğlu, C. (2022). Environmentally Responsive Kinetic Structure Design Proposal Through Genetic Algorithms. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 173-196.
As computational design tools developed, the use of generative systems in architecture increased, and it supported architecture thanks to the aid it provided to the designer during the problem-solving phase. Kinetic Structural Design, which is the main subject of the study, tried to incorporate both computational design tools and biological processes into the architectural production of space process. In the study, computational design tools created complex simulations with the support of computer tools as a thinking method that contributes to the design, and computational systems supported the design process by presenting complexities beyond the human designer’s thinking. Thanks to a kinetic structure system, the building can reduce the active ventilation load of the building by trying to reduce the surface area in the direction of the sun during the summer months, by heating much less and increasing the surface area towards the direction of the wind; It will try to do the opposite and try to avoid the wind as much as possible while trying to get the maximum efficiency from sunlight during the day. The produced building formation behaves similarly to a living organism in that it contains the potential for continuous transformation and is compatible with the environment by reducing energy consumption and working in harmony with environmental factors. An existing high-rise building has been studied to test the system proposed in the project. The current situation of the existing building will be discussed first, then, in the second stage, a new static form proposal was introduced with the help of genetic algorithms in the light of the data collected from Ladybug. In the third stage, the unit elements that are exposed to the most environmental impact on the proposed structure are also divided into smaller parts within themselves, and these parts become more efficient by trying to reduce the surface area towards the direction of the sun in summer months, and to increase the surface area towards the direction of the wind, which heats much less. It was considered important that the method and scope presented in the study are easily accessible and focus on a basic problem, in terms of showing the practical use of the proposed system, as well as introducing the computational design thinking that can be easily applied to the design studios by comparing the current situation and the produced situation. Transfer of computational design tools to the studio environment; It is important because it contains the potential for designers to discover that computational design tools actually support the reflexive nature of design, and to grasp design tools as a thinking method that contributes to design.
Keywords: Kinetic Architecture, Skyscraper Design, Generative Systems, Genetic Algorithms, Optimization, Pareto Front
11. A Decision Support Tool Proposal for Public Emergency Scenarios
Tuğçe Gökçen, Belinda Torus
Gokcen. T. & Torus, B. (2022). A decision support tool proposal for public emergency scenarios. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(2), 197-218.
This study aims to reinterpret and diversify the relationship between the audience and performer by creating a tool to produce stage design layouts. The project enabled diversification of the sensory relations between the audience, performer, and stage and provided a wide variety of alternative layouts. It also aims to provide diversity in the design phase to create more alternative stage layouts and possible platform movements using parametric shape grammar. Concerning the parametric shape grammar, a rule-based design model is developed and positioned on the line between analog and digital. The process starts with choosing the stage configurations; each of the three configurations, namely proscenium, thrust, and the arena, has different layout diagrams according to the rules. The rules, spatial relations, and dimensions are investigated by analyzing a well-known experimental theatre, Dee& Charles Wyly Theatre. The spatial relations determine the constraints, and the results gave parametric shape grammars. There are labels for some areas to enable matching functions that are related. The play starts when the first plan layout is chosen, which is created using parametric shape grammar. If the doors are closed, and the audience is in their seats, the parterre platforms movements start by randomly choosing the previously created layouts. The rules are created in the plugin named SortalGI in Grasshopper. The random selection and timer also are enabled in Grasshopper. The article presents a proposed design tool that can be used to gather the data with the sensors. These sensors could store the audience’s data in every movement of the parterre platforms with different scenarios. Further studies can elevate by using previously stored data from the audiences. With the movement of the parterre platforms of the auditorium, the layouts will help create various experiences for its audience. In future studies, it is recommended to measure the variety of experiences that movements of the parterre enabled. The latter aims to investigate the effect of the reinterpretation of the space on the audience. Although there are no flexible and experimental theater stages with enough technical equipment to provide these features in Turkey, it can also be considered a proposal for a new theater stage design with increasing interest in recent years.
Keywords: Decision Support Tool, Emergency Planning, Temporary Complementary Unit Allocation
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Istanbul Technical University | Faculty of Architecture