The seventh issue of JCoDe focuses on the relationships between design studios, which is a core component of design education, and computation. In the broadest sense, design studios offer interfaces where theory and practice, experiment and experience, criticism and research meet at different content levels, forms, and abstractions. Considering the variables such as how a design studio is run, its content, actors, tempo, rhythm, methods, and tools, it stands out as an experimental space reconstructed with the interaction of its components. In this context, design studios cannot be reduced to a singular learning outcome and/or a design object; with a broad perspective, they bring to understanding everyday life, environment, nature, and the built environment.
On the other hand, the computation triggers the accumulation of crises that can lead to long-term paradigm shifts in design practices on conceptual, intellectual, or practical axes. It offers techniques, methods, and approaches that include computer and/or digital tools and analog computing planes that will emphasize the fundamental origins of computation. On the one hand, the relations between designer-designer, designer-tool, designer-process, designer-design object, and design object-context are diversifying; with the transparency of interaction processes, the doors of design studios are opening to other disciplines with increasing momentum. In other words, design studios, which bring together the theoretical, practical, and experimental knowledge of design in a joint laboratory, invite other disciplines to this environment as founding actors more strongly than in the past, with the possibility of computation. Approaches that can create pendulums between the intuitive origins of design and transparent and procedural processes such as computation for/in/within the design, design by computation, design through computation, design-oriented computation/computation-oriented design enrich in-studio design practices.
In this context, the seventh issue of JCoDe discusses interaction within the design studio from the perspective of complex systems; experimental approaches in design studios that deal with computation in tool/method/model aspects; studio evaluation through the computational approach, and future projections of the impact of computational approaches on design studios.
The fifth issue of JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design with the theme of ‘Fabrication and Material’ has been published. The Dergipark link is below.
2. Fabrication and Material
Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer
3. A Content Analysis on Poetic and Artistic Qualities of Digital
Fabrication in Architecture
Kamile Öztürk Köstenciğ, Yağmur Burcu Güneş
Köstenciğ, K.Ö., Günşe, Y.B. (2021). A Content Analysis on Poetic and Artistic Qualities of Digital
Fabrication in Architecture. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 01-19. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.1062471
New production techniques and digital design tools allow new possibilities in architecture and digital fabrication laboratories provide an environment for these new opportunities. In addition to its potential in terms of science and technology, digital fabrication creates many opportunities for artistic aspects of architecture. Therefore we aimed to make a theoretical discussion and try to provide a new perspective for an evaluation of the phenomenon in the context of artistic and poetic aspects. From this perspective, to clarify the artistic aspects of architecture in the context of digital fabrication technologies and to understand how the subject is covered in the literature clearly, a comprehensive literature review has been made. Initially, the literature review was limited to the themes of digital fabrication and architecture to extract from out-of-context articles and 197 peer review journals written in the last 10 years were examined. Then, a pre-coding schema was prepared from two authors and extended after a detail literature review. The extended coding schema was grouped in terms of their semantic distance and these groups were used to make an assumption about papers. The software MAXQDA, which is commonly used in the social science, assist us to identify the semantic codes related to the research context without any omission. Articles were investigated with the keywords created after precoding. The remaining 51 articles on the field of Architecture were analysed through these codes. Our aim is not to prove if there is sufficient paper that discuss the artistic aspects of digital fabrication. However this methodology helps us to understand the focus of the papers and the tendencies as an approach in this context. In general, the subject of digital fabrication in architecture is studied more about materials, structures, processes, technology and how to use digital fabrication tools instead of why it was examined in the literature. From perspective of artistic dimension, the reviewed papers mainly emphasize ‘characteristic, identity, variety, style, concept, customization, subjective, subjectivity, formal, composition, tectonic, geometry, form’. On the other hand, ‘aesthetic, beauty, expression, art, stereotomy, craft, artifact, are less discusses codes. Words directly related to art and craft are not discussed in the articles and there is less discussion on the aesthetic values of digital fabrication. ‘Sense, experience, perception, intuition’ are also less discussed codes even if these are strong relationship with architectural context. Although not included in the academic literature, the issue of digital fabrication has begun to be discussed in the context of experience, through art installations in 1:1 scale produced by digital fabrication tools. In a nutshell, the issue of art is at least as valuable as the most frequently asked question of how in digital fabrication, and this aspect should be given more place in scientific research.
Keywords: Digital fabrication, Art, Architecture, Poetic.
4. The Use of Virtual Reality for Mass Customization in Digital Fabrication Processes
Uğur Efe Uçar, Ethem Gürer
Uçar, U.E. & Gürer, E. (2022). The use of virtual reality for mass customization in digital fabrication processes. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 19-38.
The paper focuses on the use of virtual reality technology as a mass customization tool in the digital fabrication process to produce design objects suitable for different user dimensions. In line with the specified focus, the theoretical framework of the paper was examined through the concept of standardization. The concept of standardization was examined in terms of both the product and the product user, and the existing anthropometric data were questioned. Because of the inquiries made, it was stated that an overarching definition could not be made regarding anthropometric measures and the concept of the “average man.” This situation revealed the need for new approaches to design and production processes. This approach, which encourages the transparency of the production process and the ability of users to customize products by participating in the production process, is presented concerning the development and use of digital fabrication technologies. At the intersection of digital fabrication tools and mass customization, this paper examines the potential of interfaces to increase producer-consumer dialogue. Virtual reality, which can make the design product experience on a 1/1 scale and turn the user from the “spectator” into the “actor” of the experience, has been determined as the design tool. In line with all these, the paper hypothesizes that the use of virtual reality as a tool in the mass customization and digital production process will contribute to creating the transparent and participatory design process features of the future. To examine the stated hypothesis, two different design scenarios were designed as a paper method. In the first of these scenarios, the participants physically experience a design object (chair) in the real world to determine the ergonomics of the design object for them. In the second scenario, the participants make customizations in the virtual reality environment over the model of the design object, for which the user determines the ergonomically unsuitable features in the first scenario. The data obtained through anthropometric conformity analysis and new chairs designed by participants were evaluated with visual design outputs. As a result, virtual reality technology, which emerged as a tool suitable for the participatory and dynamic structure of the design and production process, contributes to the evolution of the process into a participatory structure. In addition, the presented design and production process enables the production of many alternatives for design objects. The production of countless alternatives is valuable not only to reach the most suitable product for users but also to improve the creative processes and learning environments of designers.
Keywords: Mass Customization, Digital Fabrication, Virtual Reality, Anthropometry, Dimensional Customization.
5. Digital Integration of Cultural Heritage Objects Using Voronoi-Based Generative Design Methods
İpek Akbaylar Hayreter
Akbaylar Hayreter, I. (2022). Digital Integration of Cultural Heritage Objects Using Voronoi-Based Generative Design Methods. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 39-52.
Integrating the missing parts of damaged cultural heritage objects with original or contemporary materials is an important restoration technique that directly effects the perception of the artifacts. In the conservation of cultural heritage, when an integration is to be made to the original object, the new material to be added should have a different surface texture so that it original. Within the scope of this study, it is aimed to digitally integrate the missing parts of the damaged cultural heritage objects with a generative design method. Developing technologies support the digital documentation and effective presentation of cultural heritage. The artifact can be integrated digitally without the risk of damaging its original state, and in the following stages, it can be experienced by people in museums through different ways of representation when supported by tools such as augmented reality. Such current practices can contribute to the increase of interest in cultural heritage by strengthening people’s interaction with the historical artifacts. In this study, the Cellular Automata approach is taken as a basis, in Voronoi diagrams are used as a generative design method, considering that the new formation, which will take in charge as a representative binder in the missing parts of the objects, will adapt to the organic form of the space to be filled. In the selection of this method, which is based on more irregular neighborhood relations of cells in different sizes and shapes, it is taken into account that it allows the type of production aimed in the study. The missing parts of the objects are modeled in three dimensions, and the gaps are digitally integrated with Voronoi diagrams with different cell sizes. It is among the aims of this study to draw attention to the disappearing cultural heritage values with different representations of cultural heritage objects integrated with generative design-based digital methods and to contribute to the field of cultural heritage conservation. When the related leading studies in the literature are evaluated, it is considered that experiencing the outcomes of this study through different current technologies such as augmented and virtual reality will increase the interaction of people with cultural heritage.
Keywords: Emergence, Spatial Grammar, Mass Customization, Housing Design, Generative Design.
6. Re-questioning the Role of Froebel Blocks in Design Pedagogies through Digital Fabrication
Nihan Kaya, Ethem Gürer
Kaya, N. (2022). Re-questioning the role of Froebel Blocks in design pedagogies through digital fabrication. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 53-80.
Nowadays, with the increasing digitalization and the increase in digital fabrication production technologies, the dialogue between the digital and physical world is accelerating and strengthening. The effects of digital fabrication, which is the transition of design with computational design tools in the digital environment to production with 3D printers in the physical environment, on design education pedagogy are widely discussed. This study covers the reinterpretation and production of Froebel blocks, which is an educational tool in the intersection of digital and physical production, in contemporary conditions and the discussion of its impact on educational pedagogy. The process of determining the technology to be used in the production phase of digital fabrication and the material to be used is another aim. In this context, Froebel blocks designed by Fredrich Froebel and used in his own educational pedagogy were redesigned with digital computing tools and produced with fabrication tools. In this study; it was carried out in 2 stages as design and application. During the design phase, Froebel blocks were redesigned with a contemporary interpretation with digital computing tools and produced with a 3D printer from digital fabrication tools. Due to the total weight and calibration problems in the production process, 3D printing with wood, filament and 3D printing with resin were tried in terms of material selection, and 3D printing with resin was preferred. In the application step, postgraduate students who did not have a design education made operational sequences on the design problem given with Froebel blocks and contemporary Froebel blocks, and these stages were recorded visually and audibly. Records were divided into protocols and analyzed on the basis of block type and actions. It is visualized with the linkography visualization technique. In the analysis process, it was observed that the design activity with contemporary Froebel blocks took longer than the design activity with Froebel blocks, and the participant performed more and additionally different types of actions. During their designs, the participants “adjoining”, “overlapping”, etc. with the Froebel blocks. In addition to these actions with contemporary Froebel blocks, they performed actions such as "inserting to gap", "removing from gap" and "rotating". It has been observed that the action connection between the blocks has increased thanks to the gaps and auxiliary elements found in contemporary Froebel blocks. It is thought that the enrichment of the operational sequences in contemporary blocks compared to the original Froebel blocks will contribute to the richness of the design operational repertoire. In addition, basic manipulations to existing block geometries offer important possibilities for customizing and replacing the individualized products of the future with digital fabrication tools.
Keywords: Froebel Blocks, Design Pedagogies, Digital Fabrication, Linkography, Design Actions.
7. Machine as the Designer of Generative Solutions in Chair Design
Çağrı Uludüz, Çağlar Aydın
Uludüz, Ç., Aydın, Ç. (2022). Machine as the Designer of Generative Solutions in Chair Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 81-104.
The use of artificial intelligence in design processes has become highly visible. The utilitarian use of this new technology in design raises questions about the relationship between man and machine and its contribution to the final product. This study, which was carried out specifically for chair design, analyzes the design outputs obtained from Autodesk's Fusion 360 software, and examines how far the generative system can realize the chair design without the contribution of the designer. The contribution of generative design to the design process has been examined in terms of form, material and manufacturing technology. In this context, it reveals that the role of the designer in creating a complex design product cannot be ignored.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Computational Design, Design Tools, Design Research, Furniture Design.
8. A Proposal for Classification of Additive Manufacturing in Architecture
Yeşim Ünal, Gülen Çağdaş
Ünal, Y., Çağdaş, G. (2022). A Proposal for Classification of Additive Manufacturing in Architecture. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 105-134.
A smart and sustainable city should be an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies to improve the quality of life via its operations. They need to be planned, managed, and regulated by open data collected through different data sources to provide efficient services. Transportation services can be accepted as one of the essential services of a city. In smart cities, intelligent transportation systems help to solve problems such as traffic congestion or the amount of fuel spent in traffic by providing communication between vehicles and devices that build the whole transportation network. In order to achieve the success of intelligent transportation systems, transportation methods should be planned dynamically according to the collected data and the requirements of the city's transportation network. E-scooters are also a part of the transportation system, and since 2017, shared e-scooter systems have been used as a transportation alternative in some cities. However, e-scooters are placed in random locations in cities without relying on a precise algorithm. Thus, users in some locations cannot benefit from the e-scooter sharing system efficiently due to the lack of e-scooter in neighborhoods. In this study, a decision support system for e-scooter sharing systems is suggested, which helps to place e-scooters dynamically in areas that are needed in the city. This system is intended to offer select options by combining the traffic density information of the regions and alternative region data provided by the multi-criteria analysis made using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with real-time social media data.
Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Support Systems, Shared E-Scooter Systems, Smart and Sustainable Cities, Social Media.
9. Plan Generation with Generative Adversarial Networks: Haeckel’s Drawings to Palladian Plans
Merve Akdoğan, Özgün Balaban
Akdoğan, M., Balaban, Ö. (2022). Plan Generation with Generative Adversarial Networks: Haeckel’s
Drawings to Palladian Plans. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 135-154.
In this study the application of deep learning networks in architectural design is explored via experimental plan generation. With image processing abilities of deep learning networks such as GAN (generative adversarial network), training generative models with architectural visual data is possible. One type of GANs called CycleGAN is specially chosen for the purposes of this study because of its flexibility on visual datasets and low requirement of preliminary labor. In the scope of this study, 2D plans and visuals are selected as datasets to train the CycleGAN model. Instead of training the model with only one dataset of plans and let it generate similar but novel outcomes, in this study two datasets are used to experiment on translations into plan-like images from a different dataset. For the dataset that consists of plans, Palladio’s plans are selected. Because the embedded spatial organizational data can be easily decoded and used as a training set for the CycleGAN algorithm, thanks to their potent and symmetrical representations on 2D. Second dataset is formed by Haeckel’s microorganism drawings, in order to investigate new possibilities of spatial organization when they are emerged from the visual data of organism structures. Instead of original microorganism images, Haeckel’s drawings are selected because of their idealized plan-like figures with rotational symmetry. The model was trained with these two datasets to perform image translation between them. Although the model can work both ways, this paper focused on and evaluated the translations from Haeckel’s microorganism drawings to Palladian-like plans. Eventually the model translated Haeckel’s drawings into plan-like images which shows the features of the forming patterns of Palladian plans. The outcomes can be beneficial and inspiring for the conceptual and preliminary design processes as well as studying the visual transformations between architectural and out of field visuals. This study, contributes to the field in terms of the application of AI methods -specifically GANs- in experimental plan generation tasks.
Keywords: :AI in Architecture, CycleGAN, Deep Learning, Plan Generation, Spatial Image Processing.
10. Proposal of the Stage and Parterre Layout Design with Parametric Shape Grammar for Experimental Theater Stages
Taşdelen, M. (2022). Proposal of the stage and Parterre Layout design with parametric shape grammar for experimental theater stages. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 3(1), 155-176.
This study aims to reinterpret and diversify the relationship between the audience and performer by creating a tool to produce stage design layouts. The project enabled diversification of the sensory relations between the audience, performer, and stage and provided a wide variety of alternative layouts. It also aims to provide diversity in the design phase to create more alternative stage layouts and possible platform movements using parametric shape grammar. Concerning the parametric shape grammar, a rule-based design model is developed and positioned on the line between analog and digital. The process starts with choosing the stage configurations; each of the three configurations, namely proscenium, thrust, and the arena, has different layout diagrams according to the rules. The rules, spatial relations, and dimensions are investigated by analyzing a well-known experimental theatre, Dee& Charles Wyly Theatre. The spatial relations determine the constraints, and the results gave parametric shape grammars. There are labels for some areas to enable matching functions that are related. The play starts when the first plan layout is chosen, which is created using parametric shape grammar. If the doors are closed, and the audience is in their seats, the parterre platforms movements start by randomly choosing the previously created layouts. The rules are created in the plugin named SortalGI in Grasshopper. The random selection and timer also are enabled in Grasshopper. The article presents a proposed design tool that can be used to gather the data with the sensors. These sensors could store the audience's data in every movement of the parterre platforms with different scenarios. Further studies can elevate by using previously stored data from the audiences. With the movement of the parterre platforms of the auditorium, the layouts will help create various experiences for its audience. In future studies, it is recommended to measure the variety of experiences that movements of the parterre enabled. The latter aims to investigate the effect of the reinterpretation of the space on the audience. Although there are no flexible and experimental theater stages with enough technical equipment to provide these features in Turkey, it can also be considered a proposal for a new theater stage design with increasing interest in recent years.
Keywords: Generative systems, parametric shape grammar, stage design, experimental theater stages, audience experience.
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