February2anuaryFabrication methods and processes are becoming a significant part of design research and applications, like many other disciplines with the transition of production from traditional approaches to machines having the high capability and precision and with the development of digital production techniques. These new production processes offer the opportunity to ‘grasp’ the material from physical and digital aspects, together with testing material behavior at many stages of the design processes at all scales and precision. Hence, these processes provide essential clues about the role of material and production in future design processes.

Computational design tools provide designers with knowledge, logic, rule-based process, and abstract thinking skills. Indifference, fabrication tools open the way to think through physical production scale, technology and constraints, production sensitivities, details, and materials. For a designer, this partnership is a constant dialogue between digital and physical possibilities of material, or in other words, between abstract and tangible. The material’s behavior is diversified, and its capability is increased with the operations performed at macro, micro, and nanoscales. This material synthesis, which emerges in design, is shaped by the simulations of formal, structural, relational, and conceptual principles in integrating digital and physical possibilities through different data testing, research, measurement, observation, and experiments. With the new structuralism, in which form, structural system, and material are handled relationally, the material is no longer an additional part of the fabrication process but an essential element that directly affects the design from the very beginning of the process. This association of strategies and tools with design components offers different solution possibilities to designers in rapid prototyping, performance measurements, a realization of complex geometries, reconfigurable form research, ornament design, structural system, and detail solutions, and reconsidering traditional workflow models between digital and physical.

Within the contexts mentioned above, the sixth issue of JCoDe (Volume 3, No 1) encapsulates digital fabrication techniques; fabrication in design processes; workflows and scalability; physical and digital material; performance-driven research; the role of the material in the design process; fabrication and material culture in design pedagogies; the discussion of the use of materials and their innovative effects in form-finding and structure research.

Timeline
November 2021: Launch of the call for papers.
January 17th, 2022: Deadline for full paper submissions via
DergiPark
February 14th, 2022: Notification of accept/ reject/ revisions to
authors.
February 28th, 2022: Revision submissions.
March 2021: Publication of the issue

Front Page

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode

The fourth issue of JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design with the theme of  ‘Measuring in Design’ has been published.  The Dergipark link is below. 

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode

 

ISSN 2687-4318

 

Tüm Dergi Açılır Sayfa

Formatında

 

 

1. Cover

Page I

       PDF              

Editorial

2. Emergence in Design

Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer

Page V

    PDF             

Articles

3.Emergence and Complexity in Agent-based Modeling: Review of Stare-of-the-art Tools

Sehnaz Canani

Page 1-24

Cenani, S. (2021). Emergence and complexity in agent-based modeling: review of state-of-the-art tools. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 01-24. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.983476 

Abstract

Agent-based systems are an important application area of artificial intelligence and are used in decision support systems. Rather than being a problem-solving tool, agent-based system is a tool for developing and testing alternative solutions according to various scenarios. In this context, agent-based modeling is a very effective method to support decision makers in emergency situations to evaluate different risk scenarios and then make decisions quickly and effectively. Moreover, agent-based modeling is a very useful method to support decision makers in situations of high complexity and uncertainty. This paper introduces current studies performed with several agent-based modeling tools and software environments such as NetLogo, AnyLogic, MATSim and Repast. Apart from these, various agent-based modeling tools exist, but these four tools have been chosen because they are still receiving software updates and being widely used in the most current studies. The aims of this study are to review these four agent-based modeling tools, present state-of-the-art research conducted with these tools and provide a reference of agent-based modeling tools for researchers who are developing decision support systems in architectural, urban and transportation design research fields. In this paper, after giving a brief definition of an agent-based system and explaining the importance of concepts such as emergence and complexity in the field of agent-based modeling, it is explained who uses the agent-based models for what purpose, when, where, why and how to use agent-based modeling through selected examples from state-of-the-art studies carried out in different research fields. Furthermore, what current studies and agent-based modeling tools teach us and how future studies can benefit from agent-based models are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Agent-based Modeling, Emergence, Complexity, Uncertainty, Simulation.

     FULL TEXT (EN)         

4. Generating Optimal High-rise Building Suggestions According to Solar Radiation and Shade Using Genetic Algorithms

Erenalp Saltık

Page 25-50

Saltık, E. (2021). generating optimal high-rise building suggestions according to solar radiation and shade using genetic algorithms. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 25-50.
https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.984567

abstract

Heating and cooling costs and energy consumption in buildings constitute a great burden. In addition, because high-rise buildings create long and large shadows, they limit and sometimes completely prevent the hours of direct sunlight for the surrounding buildings. Due to these two features, high-rise buildings increase the energy consumption of the city and reduce the comfort of life. High-rise buildings also try to create as much area as possible, as they have a specific purpose of maximum rentable area. Can we reduce energy consumption in the building itself and its surroundings, and increase the quality of life by using evolutionary approaches in the concept design phase of high-rise buildings? The aim of this study is to achieve these goals at the optimum level without reducing the targeted total building area excessively. It is an important feature that the designer can see and intervene in the concept phase of different solution proposals that meet these conditions by using genetic algorithms. Numerous studies have been conducted on form and mass in architectural design using evolutionary approaches and genetic algorithms. With developments in computation, the number and level of detail of these studies have increased and the computation time has shortened. In this study, Wallacei plugin, which is an evolutionary approach plugin using NSGA-II / Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, was used. In addition to the studies focusing on the urban texture and features with genetic algorithms, there are also studies focusing on the building design and the building envelope. This study focuses on the mass of the building and its effect on the urban fabric and can be a method for early-stage mass analysis and design. In order to test these suggestions, a sample existing high-rise building and its different alternatives produced by evolutionary algorithms were compared by fitness values. The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago was chosen as an example building. The simple but effective mass form of the structure provides advantages and diversity in analysis and calculations. The case building is located in a climatic region like Chicago where all four seasons are experienced, and its effects on its surroundings can be easily observed. In the methodology, we calculate the total floor area of the current design of Sears Tower, the solar radiation it receives in a certain period, the shadow it casts on the nearby buildings and the sky view from different parts of the building as first step. The second step is to make choices among the alternatives produced according to these four eligibility criteria. As a result of the study, forms that provide good fitness values from the original building in different criteria were produced, and results that were better than the original design in all other values were obtained by meeting the building area criterion. Rhinoceros 3D program and sub-plugins of Grasshopper plugin were used to make these analyzes. The Elk plugin was used for city data of Chicago. The Ladybug plugin was used for sun and shadow analysis. The Wallacei plugin was used for simulation and analysis with genetic algorithms. At this stage of the study, materials and structural elements are out of scope, analyzes are made over mass studies.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, High-rise Buildings, Optimization, Solar Radiation, Shade.

     FULL TEXT (TR)        

5. A Spatial Grammar Model for Designing Mass Customized High-rise Housing Blocks

Ahmet Emre Dinçer , Gülen Çağdaş

Page 51-72

Dinçer, A. E. & Çağdaş, G. (2021). A spatial grammar model for designing mass customized high-rise housing blocks. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 51-72. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.985063

abstract

Emergence as a product of natural processes is a typical feature for traditional and vernacular housing settlements created by different users with their various needs. However, this feature disappears in housing production approaches for uniform and standard users due to mass production concerns. The main reason is that user needs cannot be fully transferred to design strategies due to excessive standardization. One of the main factors in this is the need for design tools and methods that effectively evaluate preferences with complex relationships. Shape grammars and spatial grammars, one of the generative design approaches, exhibit original emergence examples with their rich diversity and adaptability to different approaches. Hence, it can be seen as an alternative for solving such problems. This article presents a parametric spatial grammar model that can design high-rise housing blocks with a customized dwelling for each family. The compositions of these houses are grounded on specific spatial relationships defined by parametric rule sets. In the article, the generative design process was developed in two stages. The first stage includes the formal, syntactical, and functional relations of the spaces in a floor plan, their representation according to the rules, and generating alternative solutions. The second stage consists of the representation of the façade rules and the parametric grammar that generates the façades. In the developed spatial grammar model, user preferences are transferred to the computer through the designed interface. Dimensional properties of housing blocks are defined by a grid system, which is determined according to user preferences and used as a starting base for spatial grammar. Plan layouts are generated on this defined grid and by sequential application of rules. In conclusion, the adaptability of spatial grammar and the rich alternatives designers can use and develop are emphasized.

Keywords:  Emergence, Spatial Grammar, Mass Customization, Housing Design, Generative Design.

     FULL TEXT (EN)        

6. Shell Design by Integration of Origami and Cellular Automata

Hatice Melike Özbek

Page 73-102

Özbek, H. M. (2021). Shell design by integration of origami and cellular automata. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 73-102. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.983226

ABSTRACT

In this study, an emerging shell design was made by using origami and cellular automata in an integrated way. The state of being kinetic and being able to change and transform, which comes from the nature of origami; is an inspirational situation in an architectural design. Use of origami can provide unexpected results to the designer. Producing an integrated system with the concept of emergence, creating a system that emerges with the determined rules and the interactions between the parts in the system themselves will strengthen the design. At the beginning of the study, different origami models were tried; The origami pattern with the parabola form, which will most support the concept of emergence, was used. Within the scope of the study, the modular use of origami was discussed and cellular automata was used in the assembly of the modules. The use of modules and the combination of modules by use of cellular automata; strengthened the relationship of the study with the concept of emergence. Numerous variations will be produced by the cellular automata, and all these examples will be able to enter different forms with their own state of motion; will produce numerous alternatives for the designer and the user for different spaces and scenarios. In this context, origami was first discovered through manual trials, and the system to be used was decided, and then digital modeling and productions were supported. Manual and digital production methods supported each other; The development of the model and design has been achieved through feedback in the process. The “Crane” plug-in was used to create origami simulations for models created with Rhino-Grasshopper. Simulating origami movement in digital productions; It has been a guide in terms of the forms in which shell designs that are difficult to produce in manual studies, consisting of many modules. At the same time, the simulation steps have been guiding in the scope of the study in terms of how the user-interactive movements will be in real life and the form that the shell will take. In the continuation of the study, research was carried out for the production of the design, and a system proposal was developed. Finally, the kinetic state of this system has been investigated and studies have been carried out on the system that will provide the movement. It has been seen that origami has led the designer to many alternative designs with the appropriate material and system selection. With the kinetic system of origami and its support with cellular automata; A shell design that supports the appearance in every aspect, is user-interactive, and can adapt to different scenarios has been achieved. The realization of different productions through the user route, which will be determined in a place at the beginning, has ensured that the concept of emergence is specific to the place. At the same time, the use of cellular automata with popular configurations has contributed to creating different design alternatives.

Keywords: Cellular Automata, Emergence, Generative System, Origami.

   FULL TEXT (EN)         

7. Analysis of Structural System Behaviors for Architectural Form Alternatives in the Schematic Design

Salih Özdemir

Page 103-126

Özdemir, S. (2021). Analysis of structural system behaviors for architectural form alternatives in the schematic design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 103-126. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.984086

abstract

The schematic design phase, in which the architectural form is determined, is the phase where the greatest benefits can be produced with small changes. In the schematic design stage, the structural features of the building can also be taken into account to a very limited extent as like the amount of sunlight, prevailing wind directions, topography, and the relationship with neighboring buildings. This is because the designer or engineer specialized for structural analysis is usually not involved in the schematic design phase. The structural designer begins to contribute to the design at the stage where the building form reaches a certain level of development. In this phase, where the main form of the building is determined, the structural data undertakes the task of producing solutions to realize the design, rather than being the information that feeds the design. In structural system calculations, there are many components such as soil behavior, seismic properties, strength data of materials and the purpose for which the building will be used. It is often not possible for the architect, who is already focused on the design processes, to devote time to a detailed analysis of the structural features at this level. In addition, structural analysis and calculations do not occupy a large place in the education life of the architect. Unlike traditional design processes, when a building's form is roughly revealed, adding basic structural data to the design knowledge pool will make the design unique, make the designer's decisions more accurate and the structure will guide the architectural form. It will contribute to the detailed analyzes to be made during the advanced design phase and to the compliance with the standards required by the regulations. It is also expected to be effective in the coordinated work of design stakeholders. The design tool, which allows the assignment of carrier materials and sections to structural elements, will present the weight of the structure and the regions where maximum stresses occur to the user at the schematic design stage. In this study, in the schematic design phase, with the emergence of the architectural form, a computation tool is proposed that can make structural analyzes for both parametric design and traditional design and produce results.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, Schematic Design, Karamba3D, Computation.

    FULL TEXT (TR)         

8. A Decision Support System for Placing Shared E-Scooters:
A Case Study for Istanbul

Begüm Moralioğlu, Şehnaz Cenani, Gülen Çağdaş

Page 127-148

Moralıoğlu, B., Cenani, Ş. & Çağdaş, G. (2021). A decision support system for placing shared e-scooters: a case study for Istanbul. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 127-148. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.978704

abstract

A smart and sustainable city should be an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies to improve the quality of life via its operations. They need to be planned, managed, and regulated by open data collected through different data sources to provide efficient services. Transportation services can be accepted as one of the essential services of a city. In smart cities, intelligent transportation systems help to solve problems such as traffic congestion or the amount of fuel spent in traffic by providing communication between vehicles and devices that build the whole transportation network. In order to achieve the success of intelligent transportation systems, transportation methods should be planned dynamically according to the collected data and the requirements of the city's transportation network. E-scooters are also a part of the transportation system, and since 2017, shared e-scooter systems have been used as a transportation alternative in some cities. However, e-scooters are placed in random locations in cities without relying on a precise algorithm. Thus, users in some locations cannot benefit from the e-scooter sharing system efficiently due to the lack of e-scooter in neighborhoods. In this study, a decision support system for e-scooter sharing systems is suggested, which helps to place e-scooters dynamically in areas that are needed in the city. This system is intended to offer select options by combining the traffic density information of the regions and alternative region data provided by the multi-criteria analysis made using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with real-time social media data.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Support Systems, Shared E-Scooter Systems, Smart and Sustainable Cities, Social Media.

9. A Form Finding Process Based on Movement Analysis: “Kinematics” Online Design Workshop Results

Sinem Kırkan, Ayça Şentop Dümen

Page 149-172

Kırkan, S. & Şentop Dümen, A. (2021). A form finding process based on movement analysis: “Kinematics” online design workshop results. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 149-172.
https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.984081

abstract

All creatures experience their surroundings through their corporal movements along with other senses. Therefore, the terms "architecture", "movement" and "body" are strongly connected to each other. Using body and movement data effectively in form creation can significantly nourish the design and the designer. From this sense, research is essential to enlighten new methods and expression techniques that will assist implementation of these data in the design process. In this regard, an online workshop was conducted with 19 fourth-year interior architecture students in Istanbul Bilgi University and a "dance" performance was used as a form finding case due to the variety of movements presented in. Form finding, which is a complex design problem in its nature, was detached from its context, thus encouraging the design thinking based solely on dance geometry. Just as the name of the workshop "Kinematic", which is defined as the "geometry of movement", suggests, the meaning and the affecting forces of the dance performance were stripped. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, participants watched the 1-minute dance video and asked to prepare a 3D model based on their short-term memory. In the second phase, the participants were asked to repeat the representation whilst video was played in a loop. Final results were analyzed according to Laban Movement Analysis. Feedback from the participants were collected via text, questionnaire and oral explanations and analyzed via qualitative data analysis. Outcomes of two phases demonstrated differences due to mental imagery, material selection and interpretation. When compared with the computational model, which was developed with the movement data, outcomes of the second phase had more representative power while the first phase left more space to interpretation and creativity. Some commentary on the online workshop process is also given in the paper.

Keywords: Interactive Design, Dance, Movement Model, Form Finding, Design Education.

10. User Interactive Wall Design Using Music Data

S. Ayça Metin

Page 173-198

Metin, S. A. (2021). User ınteractive wall design using music data. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 173-198. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.969320

abstract

Throughout history, the discipline of music and architecture have emulated each other. These imitations fed and carried both branches of art further. With the development of computational design methods in the era of digitalization, these imitations have been replaced by more homogeneous, interdisciplinary studies by blurring the line between both branches of art. This study is about visualizing the fluid structure of music on a wall, which is an architectural element. Within the scope of the study, a user and music interactive wall was designed by taking the amplitude data of the music that is activated by the user's touch and played in the environment at the sequence of user interaction, and using this data as the input of the cellular automata rule sets. This designed wall consists of equal panels, and as the user touches these panels, bringing the cells to life. The wall panels that have become alive are represented with a unique color code for each user. By using the neighborhood relations of a cellular automaton, a single wall panel, which is affected by the user, can display an expanding and damping character on the neighbor wall panels in direct proportion to the increase and decrease of the music amplitude. At this point, the cellular automaton has been used as an intermediary instrument to represent sound waves. The motives that are visualized in a continuous motion with music and user interaction, are examined under the concept of emergence. The design was coded in the node-based visual command interface Blueprint and, the simulation is running in Unreal Engine 4.26. It is hoped that this preliminary study can become a form-finding tool for further studies beyond just the visualization of music.

Keywords: Musical Interaction, Interactive Exhibition, Cellular Automata, Music and Architecture, Emergence

 

ISSN 2687-4318

 

Whole Journal

in Flip Page

 

 

Cover

1. Cover

Page I

       PDF              

Editorial

2. Measuring in Design

Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer

Page V

    PDF             

Articles

3. A Mereological Framework for Evaluating Architectural Object

Erhan Sevinç, Sema Alaçam

Page 1-26

Sevinç, E, Alaçam, S. (2021). Mereological Framework for Evaluating Architectural Object. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design.   JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 1-26.

      https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1516205

 

Özet

Along with the developing technology, with the emergence of a reality independent of the human mind, mathematics is providing us with much more participatory opportunities to us with regards to informatics. Also capturing the human-being himself as an object, the computational design covers a world that all the participant actors are objects themselves. The objects are the essential ontological units of the universe. Hereby, generating from this specific notion, this paper focuses on a new emerging poetica devoted to object. Accordingly, it aspires after the architectural object to be formed by new paradigms, while becoming an entity that can be fully perceived by its tangible and true characters. Therewithal, the paper investigates the potential of the object-oriented aspects as an alternative and subsidiary architectural agenda. Not only aiming to consist a definition, but also intending to present a conceptual proposal in order to develop the experiments, the terminology, and the fundamentals in the context of architectural discipline. At this juncture, two queries belonging to object emerges: First, what components does object consist of? The second, what does object constitute? Those queries that are both internal and external object-oriented, are formed through ontological definitions that belongs to parts and the whole, and architectural interactions are questioned based on according to the improved parts definitions. This paper aims to present a framework that could manage to theocratize by its forms the various ontological definitions of the ‘part’ and the architectural relations with regards to parts. At the same time, it searches for what the architecture could be able to capture in terms of parts and wholes. In this context, mereology, that could be defined as the form based partial knowledge, proposes a computational aspect on the analysis of architectural form and mathematical possibilities. It constitutes digital compositions, by means of varying design strategies in range of partto-part and peer-to-peer. Form, gains a character that could be mentioned as the resonance of the parts. Along with it, this paper, aims a harmonic design-construction process from the concept of part to the digital material. Furthermore, the paper presents an investigation of a conceptual foundation that allows interactions in between machinehuman being by means of axiomatic aspects.

Keywords: Object Oriented Ontology, Mereology, Discrete, Decentralization, Digital Theory.

     TAM METİN (TR)         

4. A Hermeneutical Framework Drawn with Measurement Theories to Extend Design Evaluation

Deniz Oskay, Ethem Gürer

Sayfa 27-46

Oskay, D., Gürer, E. (2021).  A Hermeneutical Framework Drawn with Measurement
Theories to Extend Design.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 27- 46.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1515699

Özet

In the 21st century, it can be argued that measurement is considered as the basis of all experimental and theoretical researches including human sciences such as sociology and psychology and natural sciences both physical and life sciences, whereas design process can be considered both in the field of human sciences and natural sciences due to its cross-disciplinary and multilayered constitution. The lexicological history of the Greek word ‘metrein’ confirms that design evaluation includes measurement inherently since ‘metrein’ conveys measurement as evaluation and judgment. Thus, discussing the design evaluation obviously necessitates discussions about measurement as well and a cross-disciplinary approach should be adopted for such an endeavor, considering the importance of measurement in design evaluation. There are different approaches to design processes offered by many pioneers of the field such as Alexander (1964) and Archer (1968). This plurality of proposals shows that there is not a singular and absolute consistency while supporting the ambiguous nature of design processes. Design evaluation can be regarded as one of the most ambiguous design sub-processes since it both includes objective evaluations and analysis, yet it includes subjective understandings such as interpretation and abstraction as well. Measurement activity emerges in disparate stages of the design process, such as doing site surveying, calculating project budget and feasibility studies can be considered as objective measurements and making questionnaires, site queries and sustainability outcomes as subjective measurements. Depending on this fact, design evaluation can be regarded as one of the most controversial design sub-processes in terms of its measurability because of the co-occurrence of objectivity and subjectivity. In this regard, the paper aims to clarify a hermeneutical framework to expand the design evaluation process with theories from measurement science since the studies in measurement science can guide the measurement activity in the design evaluation with its constitution of a clear understanding of information and its qualitative features. By doing so, both objective and subjective understandings in the design evaluation are addressed with a hermeneutical process for clarification of the evaluation within the dual nature of hermeneutics. Therefore, a hermeneutical design evaluation process is formulated by using the understanding of measurement theories since they are implicitly active in design evaluation. This paper proposes to retake the problem of measurability, specifically through an examination of evaluation processes, to show that evaluative actions in design processes can and must be re-formulated with the understanding of theories of measurement science and hermeneutics to build up a holistic and integrated negotiation of quantitative and qualitative information in the design evaluation process.

Keywords: Design evaluation, Design process, Hermeneutics, Measurement Science.

     TAM METİN (EN)        

5.  Interpretation and Types in Design Process as Measuring Instrument

Meryem Nurefşan Yabanigül

Sayfa 47-66

Yabanigül, M. N. (2021). Interpretation and Types in Design Process as Measuring Instrument. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 47-66

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1516110

Özet

In this article, the design is examined as a whole of different steps of knowledge and the established relationships between these steps by continuously expanding and processing knowledge, along a path that consists of an interrogative point of view and solution-seeking actions. The design process has a cyclical movement in which the product and its approach to the product are constantly questioned and re-measured with the chain of doing-understanding-interpretation. In the chain of doing understanding interpretation, the beginning or end of the actions can not be limited, each step is related to each other at every moment. However, it is necessary to divide the process into stages into studies conducted to understand the design process and the relationships it establishes. In our article, the stages of the design process determined by the researchers and the relationships established between these stages with interpretation are tried to be analyzed. In the studies in the literature, the interpretation in the design process is expressed with a different concept in each research. As a result of the literature review, the design process, its stages, and the relationships they have
established through interpretation have been reconstructed and considered independent of a specific design process. In this article, interpretation within the design process is divided into multiple types with different functions as interpretation, discovering, reasoning and reflection; and the stages of the design process specified as defined knowledge, pre-knowledge, mental representation, doing by playing, physical representation, design proposal, and design solution. Mental representations are images, relationships, and associations which are the synthesis of the pre-knowledge of the designer and the defined design knowledge through interpretation. Images become concrete by transferring them to the physical environment by doing by playing, and they allow new questions to be produced with discovery, which is considered as a type of interpretation, and new questions are transferred back to mental representation. The cycle of doing by playing, discovering, creating questions, and transferring back to mental representation, supports the formation of knowledge and hypothesis. Controlled trials of the physical representations are produced by interpreting the revealed knowledge and hypotheses. The design proposal is measured with reflective thinking and new hypotheses and questions are produced and re-included in the process from different steps. The design result is the physical representation aimed at explaining the knowledge sets established by the design process. The design process has the potential to continue infinitely by seeking solutions to new hypotheses and questions it generates. The design process ends with responding to all the requirements of the design problem and its boundaries by establishing meaningful knowledge relationships. Interpretation types are considered as a form of measurement for transferring, developing, and defining the knowledge obtained from the tests of hypotheses and the solutions of the questions in the design process. The article explains the stages of the process and the relationships they establish with interpretation through diagrams.

Keywords:  Design Process, Cognition, Hermeneutics, Interpretation, Measurement.

     TAM METİN (TR)        

6. Integrating User Experience Knowledge into Early Architectural Design Processes through Machine Learning

Bilge Şapcı, Şule Taşlı Pektaş

Sayfa 67-94

Şapcı, B. & Taşlı Pektaş, Ş. (2021). Integrating User Experience Knowledge into Early Architectural Design Processes through Machine Learning.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 67-94.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1534549

Özet

Artificial intelligence refers to intelligence that can be processed by machines and software. This technology enables the simulation of human intelligence through machines programmed to think like a human and imitate actions (Frankenfield, 2020). Artificial intelligence, developed to perceive, learn, and imitate human intelligence, is divided into many subheadings focusing on different areas. Machine learning, one of these titles, is defined as the process used to program artificial intelligence algorithms for continuous learning. Furthermore, these algorithms can make informed decisions according to what they learn from processed data (Grossfeld, 2020). Although machine learning has been widely used in areas like user experience (UX) design, it has not been applied extensively in architecture, yet. Therefore, this study aims to examine previous studies on machine learning in the field of UX for adapting their findings to user-environment relationships in architecture. In the article, a discussion is presented for collecting and processing user data to inform decisions in early architectural design processes using machine learning. In this way, it will be possible to determine and measure qualities such as effectiveness, efficiency, the relationship between user and space, and space quality in design. The manuscript is structured as follows. Firstly, the working mechanism of machine learning and how it is used in user experience studies are explained. Secondly, in line with the related literature, the intersections of user experience design and architecture fields are explored. In the conclusion, a discussion on how the utilization of this technology in early design processes can affect the human-space relationships and the future of architecture is presented.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, User Experience.

    TAM METİN (TR)         

7. Effect of Experience and Sketching on Design Productivity in the Early Phases of Architectural Design 

Erdal Kondakcı, Hakan Tong

Sayfa 95-136

Kondakcı, E. & Tong, H. (2021). Effect of Experience and Sketching on Design Productivity in the Early Phases of Architectural Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 95-136.

 https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1515514

Özet

Within the scope of this paper, in order to observe the effect of experience and sketching on design productivity in architectural design, the early design phase is examined where architects generate ideas with creative visual thinking by sketching to make the main design decisions. In this context, two different experience groups were identified to observe the effect of experience in the early phases of architectural design, and design studies were carried out with two participants from each of these experience groups. The first group consists of senior architecture students who are considered as novice, while the second group consists of people with 8-10 years of professional architectural experience who are considered as experienced. Participants were asked to generate a design proposal to the same architectural design problem through sketching. After design problem and participants were determined, protocol studies were carried out with participants who are using think-aloud method while sketching to produce a design proposal to the given problem, and their design processes were recorded by camera. Firstly, the verbal expressions obtained from video recordings of each participant’s design process were transcribed and segmented as design moves, then coded according to sketching action. While parsing design moves, the designer’s verbal expressions and sketches are evaluated together and focused on design decisions that change the course of the design process by little thought changes. In this way, microlevel design decisions that lead to spatial, functional, and formal changes in the design process have been identified as design moves. Linkographs were constructed by determining the links between design moves. The link between two design moves is determined by the content of the moves. All design moves are examined one by one by querying whether each design move is contextually linked to previous moves. Design productivity of each participant were determined through individual design process analysis by using linkographs. Finally, comparative analyses of design productivity, within each experience group and between groups, was included. As a result of protocol studies and linkograph analyses, important findings have been reached revealing the effect of experience and sketching on design productivity in the early design phase.
Accordingly, it has been seen that besides the general architectural experience that participants have, the experience on the specific problem area (housing design) is significant for the emergence of design productivity. Having the problem-specific experience affects design productivity positively in both senior architecture students’ group and experienced architects’ group. Another important result is that the experience of the participants and their rate of sketching in the design processes are parallel. In this context, it has been observed that the participants having more experience have a higher rate of sketching by using sketch medium more efficiently, and they generate a great majority of their design ideas through sketching. It has been observed that the high rate of sketching associated with experience affects positively to link index, critical move rate and linking pattern rates which are used to determine design productivity in linkograph analyses, and consequently contributes to occur a
productive design process.

Keywords: Design Cognition, Design Expertise, Sketching, Protocol Analysis, Linkograpghy.

    TAM METİN (TR)         

8. Analysis of Production Processes through Comparison of Written and Visual Directive: Origami Study

Nurdan Akman, Ethem Gürer

Page 137-160

Akman, N. & Gürer, E. (2021). Analysis of Production Processes through Comparison of Written and Visual Directive: Origami Study. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 137-160.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1516002

abstract

People try to live in constantly changing scales and different contexts. Individuals are influenced by the environment, society and culture during his/her actions as well as affecting all of these. Changing in context pushes the person and changing in person pushes to context to a continious transformation. We can see these actions clearly in design and production processes as we can see them in every aspect of our daily life. The act of production has been transferred from the traditional to the present through verbal, written, visual or applied expression methods, and thus action areas have become more open to development over time. Two groups, namely the implementer and the narrator, can be mentioned for the actions learned in accordance with a method and developed by the process. This study was created to investigate the effect of narrator’s narration method on the production process. In the study, it is aimed to analyze the meaning created by the narration in the mind of the implementer with an experiment in the context of the production process by associating it with the phenomenology and hermeneutics concepts. For the analysis of the specified situation, the origami study was chosen as an action because it can be explained with visual and written expression methods and the instruction steps can be followed. This study basically consists of four steps. The work stages can be defined as researching concepts, determining the method and instruction sets, the findings obtained from the participants’ physical production according to the instructions, and the analysis of the production processes of the participants, respectively. The findings obtained from the experiment participants within the scope of the study were visualized by the linkographic analysis method. Thus, the qualitative experimental results have gained a feature that can be followed by relational networks. In the study, written expression methods were more effective when describing actions such as ‘turning’ or ‘flipping’. However, in complex productions, it has been observed that visual expression is more descriptive than descriptive written expression. At the same time, the fact that the information given is critical information rather than excessive information given in a narration process creates a more explanatory production process for practitioners. It was concluded that the narrative method should be chosen according to the subject to be explained in the study.

Keywords: Hermeneutics, Origami, Phenomenological Research Method, Production Process, Written-Visual Expression Techniques

9. Drawing as a Communication Tool Through Relation Between Seeing and Drawing

Begüm Aktaş

Pages 161-188

Aktaş, B. (2021). Drawing as a Communication Tool Through Relation Between Seeing and Drawing. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 161-188.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1512180

abstract

Since the second half of the last century, studies carried out on acts of seeing and thinking. it is understood that seeing (vision) and thinking cannot be regarded as separate from each other and they are holistic components of each other. Visual Thinking Theory is developing as a result of the studies in this field. On the other hand, with the studies conducted in the field of design cognition, it is seen how the design processes progress and how drawing and sketching are effective tools in this process. With these studies emphasizing that design progresses in the interaction of visual perception and mental imagination in a dialectical cycle. The relationship between seeing and thinking is understood through drawing. In addition, it is seen that drawing is not only a communication tool, but also an information-rich visual communication method that is effective in the formation, transmission, and representation of thought, and includes its own communication system and dictionary. For this purpose, in this study on drawing as a communication tool through the relationship between seeing and drawing, the participants are evaluated with the relationship between understanding and explanation, which has an important place in the reconstruction of information from the drawings they make by copying. However, it is also known that visual perception is not only a perception of the moment of vision, but also a priori information related to the individual’s other senses, experiences and past. In this study, which was carried out with the aim of changing the existing perceptions of students who are new to design education and gaining new perspectives, the aim of this study was to improve students’ vision. It is seen that this can be understood by emphasizing the process of observing and understanding the relationships that the participants find in the visual, establishing new relationships, transferring them to the drawing and explaining them. Within the scope of this study, first-year architecture and interior architecture students work with the Appropriation method. In this method, which is also considered as reproduction that students are expected to redraw an existing work. With this method, the artist finds its own representation method and language over time while producing directly as copying. This study conducted as two main methods of four sub-groups in total and consisting of five-minute sessions. While Method 1 is to give the images of figurative and abstract painting as colored, Method 2 is to give the images of figurative and abstract painting as black and white. The drawings made later were evaluated within the scope of six criteria. This study was carried out as a preliminary study to determine the processes and methods that should be followed in the development of a new drawing tool in design education as well as features that the drawing tool should have. In this way, it is aimed to collect data that will be needed in the production of digital tools that will mimic the see-move-see behavior specific to the human designer. That will enable the human designer to benefit from the a priori knowledge he has in the decision-making process, and most importantly, will support the development of the student’s design ability in design education.

Keywords: Communication, Visual Thinking Theory, Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, Drawing.

10. Measurement of the Designed and Perceived Uncanny Concept on the Void and Light in Architecture

Burcu Kısmet

Pages 189-216

Kısmet, B. (2021). Measurement of the Designed and Perceived Uncanny Concept on the Void and Light in Architecture. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 189-216.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1515496

abstract

Uncanny, which has been the subject of philosophy since the 19th century, has evolved into a different dimension from the meanings imposed on it in previous times, with Sigmund Freud’s work on uncanny in the 20th century; he defined “unheimlich” term in German as “the return of the repressed, in fact, is everything revealed as a secret or even though it should remain veiled”; he has related the uncanny with the concepts of mother – child – birth – death and the unconscious (Freud, 2003; Jentsch, 1906/2008; Vidler, 1992). Horror and the moment of shock in horror are important factors in uncanny; as it is the name given to the situation being in danger without preparation; emphasizes the surprise factor. The moment of being mute speechless and the concept of ambiguity, which feed the uncanny and uncanny state, has been handled in different dimensions by artists, designers and architects. The components of uncanny and especially the potentials of different perceptions and meanings that ambiguity will create in the human mind in the field of art is a design factor that has been applied consciously, especially since the twentieth century. In this study, the notions of void and light in architecture will be questioned. The effect of the void and light on the uncanny character of architectural spaces is questioned in three stages in the content of the study: In the first stage, within the scope of the literature research, three examples in which the visual and spatial parameters of the uncanny of space and light are questioned in two and three dimensions are examined according to this study, general character of the uncanny in the architectural space is defined. De Chirico’s ghosted city representations from 1910s, Le Corbusier’s Villa La Roche and Daniel Libeskind’s Berlin Jewish Museum are discussed and interpreted uncanny from perspective of designed void and light. In the second stage of this paper, the question of how human consciousness expresses the uncanny through abstract representations in a phenomenological path is taken into consideration and a survey is conducted with a defined group of subjects. The survey is a set of different sections that are created with a simple drawing technique without any details. While creating these representations, people’s minds did not include lines that evoke pre-meanings and personal memories; simple and ambiguous linear representations are created and asked from the group to interpret the uncanny as it is perceived. The third and final stage includes the interpretation of the survey results, and aims to reach a holistic representation of “architectural uncanny” with the distinction of “designed uncanny” and “perceived uncanny” from a wider perspective.

Keywords: Uncanny, Sigmund Freud, Void, Light, Measurement.

11. Being the Next Proto: An Investigation of Proto-Scale with 3D Voxels at the Intersection of Architecture and Fashion Design

Serdar Aydın, Zehra Aysel

Pages 217-242

Aydın, S. & Aysel, Z. (2021). Being the Next Proto: An Investigation of Proto-Scale with 3D Voxels at the Intersection of Architecture and Fashion Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 217-242.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1516574

abstract

Pursuing an interdisciplinary design approach that blends different tastes of aesthetic phenomena requires to address the key challenges of working at multiple scales and measures to design inquiries. The concept of measuring in design creates a shared area of discussion between architecture and fashion design. Interrogating cosmetic analogies of surfaces in search of form creates important research areas for experimental design at the intersection of the both fields. Instead, this work underlines the advanced digital methods used for measuring tectonic and volumetric qualities unified in architectural and fashion design. First of all, the paper distinguishes surface-based analogies and volumetric tests in a virtually chronological timeline. Previous works develop an understanding of evanescent digital objectivity that cause loss of scale and but also adaptive measuring, which help conceive non-linearity for complex design briefs. This article seeks adaptive measuring capabilities of self-sustained 3D voxel representation in architectural and fashion design. In our preliminary investigations, voxel is addressed as a digital object which is able to generate new configurations of space-time in architecture and fashion design that ontologically prioritise human over other objects of design processes while creating spatial expressions within individual and social zones. By that, the present study pursues a new representative unit of computational design thinking in architecture and fashion design that execute measuring tools and methods for nonstandard outcome. The purpose of examining voxel is to generate a new digital measurement unit from basic cellular geometries in order for producing adaptive sequences between wearable and spatial experiments. To initially implement practical experiments, relational adaptive behaviours of 3D voxel are linked with cellular automata rules. In our experiments, 3D voxel is an analysis unit as well as relational and proto-measurement component that enables design decisions regarding space. A variety of model generations are produced in association with the 3D voxel geometry being the next proto-measurement unit of computational architecture and fashion design thinking. In this way, the work offers a number of possibilities to develop new product semantics and aesthetics that emerge during design process. Therefore, this research explores the productive potential of three-dimensional computational design thinking.

Keywords: Architecture and fashion design, 3D voxel, measuring, design research, cellular automata.

12. Agent-based Modeling for User Movements using Fuzzy Logic

Berfin Yıldız, Gülen Çağdaş

Pages 243-264

Yıldız, B. & Cağdaş, G. (2021). Agent-based Modeling for User Movements using Fuzzy. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 243-264.

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1248969

abstract

The distance between designer and user gradually increases due to the growing complexity of design processes. It makes difficult to take the user experience into consideration in design. Computational models in which users are represented as autonomous decision-making entities, help to simulate user movement. In this regard, the development of these models supports decision-making in the early stages of urban design. This study aims to analyze how the user get involved in urban space, and to examine the relationship between urban space components and the users’ movement to develop a model for simulating user movement. Collecting the data using fixed point observation and environmental analysis; Data inference with fuzzy logic; Development of the agent-based model; Implementation of the model; Evaluation and Validation are the steps followed by this article. Data inference with fuzzy logic represents the process of calculation attractiveness value which is the relationship between the user and urban space components. Afterwards, the value is determined as attract force on the simulation model. İzmir Konak Square has been chosen as the case study area. Two different simulation models, morning and evening, are defined and implemented to simulate the movement in different timelines. Then, the simulation outputs and observation data are compared with the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Secant Cosine Calculation methods to be able to examine the model efficiency.

Keywords: Agent-based modeling, Fuzzy Logic, User movement, Simulation

13. Wayfinding in Digital Spaces Through Abstract Information Layers: Virtual Museums

Esranur Demirtaş, Ethem Gürer

Page 265-284

Demirtaş, E, Gürer, E. (2021). Dijital Mekanda Yön Bulma Etkinliğinin Soyut Bilgi Katmanlari Üzerinden Ölçümü: Sanal Müze Örneği. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 265-284 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/857379

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1499239 

ABSTRACt

Spaces are generally designed for different needs in terms of functional, environmental, social and psychological aspects. A clearer intelligibility of the space by the user also positively affects the landscape of action and behavior within the space; and therefore, the most efficient use of the space is directly associated with the user’s success in finding their way within that space. These may be the locations of the walls, horizontal and vertical circulation areas that are directly related to the interior organization of the space; graphic sign elements added to the space later, natural sign elements in the outer periphery of the space. There may be elements such as regions previously defined with their use for a specific purpose and the boundaries of the space. On the other hand, today’s digital platforms, where the body that experiences space in a physical sense melts into existence, allows the interaction of body, space and time in flexible and dynamic ways through representation frames. In this sense, the digital space experience can bring together different layers of information about the space with the user and thus provide the user with a clearer base about the spatial experience and use of space. The digital wayfinding experience of the space does not include a spesific target in the space, but it includes a spontaneous tour in the virtual museum, so that this experience type will not stricted to a spesific route. This study aims to question the wayfinding activity of the user in spatial experiences designed and presented with digital interfaces through abstract information layers in different virtual museum experiences selected with different qualities. In this context, abstact information layers used in various virtual museums have been analyzed and listed. In the selection of museums, museums with multiple abstract information layers were selected, museums with low abstract information layers and museums similar to selected museums were eliminated. Rijksmuseum, Museo Thyssen, Smithsonian National Museum of National History, Picasso Museum, Çırağan Palace, Arkas Art Center and Renwick Art Gallery were examined in the category of virtual reproduction of the real structure of the museum. In the category of reproducing an imaginary structure the British Museum, Picasso Museum, Contemporary Istanbul and Voma museums and independent online exhibition venues Artsteps, Kunstmatrix, Sketchfab were examined. As a result of the evaluations, it is aimed to produce outputs regarding the interface designs of the layers that are intended to be added outside these layers and their possible contents.

Keywords: Abstract Information Layers, Measurement, Spatial Readability, Virtual Museum, Wayfinding.

14. Phenomenological Evaluation on Wayfinding in Complex Educational Buildings: The Case of ITU Faculty of Architecture

Özlem Çavuş

Page 285-312

Çavuş, Ö. (2021). Phenomenological Evaluation on Wayfinding in Complex Educational Buildings: The Case of ITU Faculty of Architecture. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 285-312. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/862422

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1513401

ABSTRACT

Orientation programs have a significant role in the adaptation of novice students to the faculty building. These programs are mostly prepared by faculty staff or authority figures who have already known the building, so they may not descend to those inexperienced in the faculty. Even if students are informed about the places in these programs, it can still be hard to find places, particularly in complex educational buildings, until they get used to them. Hence, experience-based approaches facilitating wayfinding are needed to cope with the problem. This research aims to reveal the reasons for confusion and reference points students take in wayfinding through phenomenological evaluation of the building. Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Faculty of Architecture is selected as a case study due to its complexity in wayfinding. A head-mounted GoPro is placed to twenty novice students and ten senior students as a control group, and students are asked to find a target point and return to the initial point following the shortest path. The obtained results are then evaluated according to the measuring techniques proposed by Moles (2004) since the measurement needs to answer ill-defined situations obtained from experiences. The visual recordings of participants are compared regarding the architectural mass. Therefore, comparison and equality judgment, contrast or antinomy, and weight coefficient techniques are particularly utilized among the provided techniques. Beyond the expected data, the results of the study provide information about the factors, methods, and priorities that are effective in decision making. This research would contribute to the literature showing how the data set is created based on users’ direct experience in wayfinding in complex educational buildings

Keywords: Wayfinding, Orientation Programs, Phenomenology and Hermeneutics in Wayfinding, Educational Buildings.

15. An Evaluation Model for the Resilience of Public Spaces during Covid-19 Pandemic

Selen Çiçek

Page 313-334

Çiçek, S. (2021). Kamusal Mekânların Covid-19 Pandemisi’ne Karşı Dayanıklılığını Değerlendirme Modeli. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 313-334. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/869974

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1539825

ABSTRACT

The public spaces which are essential for modern, resilient social urban life can only serve for the needs of the common ground as long as it contains vitality sensation, adequacy, accessibility and control (Lynch, 2012).However with the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, humanity realized that the public spaces are not resilient enough to react the sudden changes and necessities. The public accessibility to those spaces in normal circumstances had taken granted, however today the use of the public spaces is only possible when it satisfies the needs of the new normal such as social distance. In this context, pandemic resilient healthy and at the same time social space can only exist with the space configurations made regarding the social distance concept or the evaluation of the existing ones according to the new rules of pandemic. At this point the offered model proposes a pandemic resiliency evaluation for the public spaces that are the most essential and unavoidable for our daily routines such as supermarkets. The theory of Space Syntax first proposed by Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson in the book called ‘The Social logic of Space’ offers a Visibility Graph Analysis (VGA) for evaluating how visibility of spac e affect the user perception, therefore movement created inside the space. Using the outcomes of the Visibility Graph Analysis with Pedsim Pro, a Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino for mass motion simulation, will give us to chance to elaborate the results and therefore determining the risky, non-resilient zones in those spaces in pandemic conditions to develop better alternative spatial configurations.

Keywords: Covid-19, Mass Motion Simulation, Post Pandemic Public Space, Resilience, Space Syntax.

16. Measuring Architecture and Urban Fabric: The Case of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes

Mario Lodeweik Lionar, Özgür Ediz

Page 335-354

Lionar, M., Ediz, Ö. (2021). Measuring Architecture and Urban Fabric: The Case of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 335-354. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/852307

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1483785

ABSTRACT

Located in the District of Zeyrek in Istanbul, Turkey, the İstanbul Manifaturacılar Çarşısı (İMÇ) or Manifaturacılar Retail Center İstanbul by Doğan Tekeli, Sami Sisa, and Metin Hepgüler, and the Sosyal Sigortalar Kurumu (SSK) or Social Security Agency Complex by Sedad Hakkı Eldem are regarded as two of the most prime examples representing the major shift in the development of Turkish contemporary architecture in the 1960s. As opposed to the trend of single monolithic buildings characterizing the previous era of International Style, these two complexes offered a new formal approach in which new, large building complexes were articulated into smaller fragments. Dubbed as the “small, multipart approach”, this strategy was—and is—perceived as an appropriate strategy to generate new type of architecture considered more sensitive and respectful to the smaller urban fabric of the older, traditional Turkish neighborhood as the historical context. This paper measures this very relationship between architecture and urban fabric by utilizing fractal dimension analysis to calculate the visual complexities of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes and the urban fabric of District of Zeyrek adjacent to these two complexes, represented in the form of block plan drawings, in a comparative manner. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the formal relationship between these two complexes and the surrounding urban fabric in terms of the visual complexities in a mathematically measurable manner.

Keywords: Doğan Tekeli-Sami Sisa-Metin Hepgüler, Fractal Dimension analysisfor urban fabric, İMÇ Complex, Sedad Hakkı Eldem, SSK Complex.

17. Measuring Urban Activities: A Review for Methods for Evidence Informed Urban Planning and Design

Özgün Balaban

Page 355-376

Balaban, Ö . (2021). Measuring Urban Activities. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 355-376. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/866398

https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1526606

ABSTRACT

Successful urban planning and design projects require planners to make assumptions about users and use cases for urban spaces. Therefore, urban planners need to capture activities that happen in the urban spaces. Traditionally, planners relied on surveys and observation to capture urban activities. However, with technological advances, urban planners can access spatiotemporal data covering longer periods of time and space. In this paper, we review the data sources that can be used to measure urban activities under four sections: traditional methods, data from static sensors, data from mobile sensors, and big data. Although the data sources discussed have great potential for recording urban activity, there are challanges such as privacy issues, sampling limitations, lack of knowledge of the context and the need for technical infrastructure. In order to benefit from these data sources successfully, more efforts are needed such as improving the data accuracy, combining different methods to infer the context, making different collaborations to create technical infrastructure or purchasing the data readily.

Keywords: Big data, Evidence Informed Urban Planning and Design, Data Collection, Measuring Urban Activity.

ISSN 2687-4318

 

Whole Journal

in Flip Page

 

Cover

1. Cover

Page I

       PDF              

Editorial

2. Artificial Intelligence in Arhitecture

Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer

Page V

    PDF             

Articles

3. Computational Design Informed by Natural Systems

Sevil Yazıcı

Page 1-17

Yazici, S. (2020). Computational Design Informed by Natural Systems.   JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 1-17.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1254359 

 

ABSTRACT

Animate and inanimate matters in nature are evaluated within systems’ unity. Natural systems represent order and balance defined by computation. Mathematicians, biologists, material scientists and professionals from other fields investigate natural systems for problem-solving. Although nature has been used as a reference since historical periods, there are improper uses on how to integrate nature efficiently into the design process. The term biomimicry is used today by transcending its meaning from imitating nature towards learning from its intelligence. There is a necessity that architectural design students develop their skills on computation and evaluate natural systems from an analytical point of view to apply their finding in creative design solutions. This research is about an elective course on biomimicry developed for undergraduate architectural design education. The methodology consists of three stages, including investigation of the natural systems (1), the abstraction of the natural systems and extracting the system parameters (2), implementing the parameters in the computational design model (3). The proposed study was implemented from 2018 to 2020 into the student projects, of which outputs are discussed and grouped under four categories, including organization-, performance-, process- and motion-based computation. By examining the results, it is determined that the students gained skills in computational design and their awareness related to the natural systems were increased.

Keywords: Natural Systems, Computation, Algorithms, Architectural Design Education.

     FULL TEXT (EN)         

4. Evaluation of Metro Lines with Swarm Intelligence Approach

Sena Kaynarkaya, Gülen Çağdaş

Page 17-48

Kaynarkaya, S., Çağdaş, G. (2020). Evaluation of Metro Lines with Swarm Intelligence Approach. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 17- 48.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1255436

ABSTRACT

Computer technologies have an important place in the fields of architecture and urban design as in every field today. It is possible to see that they are largely inspired by the life cycles of living organisms, when we look closely at the development processes of these technologies in the fields of architecture and urban design.
Slime mould which are examples of emerging living systems; shows an example of swarm intelligence, which arises from basic needs and produces results very different from individual behavior. Rail systems that significantly reduce the burden of today’s urban transportation networks, are constantly changing and renewed, especially in large cities. When we look at the examples of which slime mould are used, it is seen that they have a very important role in the design of metro lines and highway systems.
In the article, it is aimed to evaluate an existing metro line by modeling slime mould behaviors with swarm intelligence approach in digital environment. Based on the studies conducted to evaluate the conformity of the metro lines and highways design criteria, this study will work on the Göztepe-Ümraniye metro line in Istanbul, which is still under construction. The stations on the line were kept constant and the model was expected to create a route, and the compliance of the route with the metro design criteria was evaluated. At points that do not comply with the design criteria, commands are introduced on the model via Python code, and the similarities and differences between the route
created by the swarm and the existing route are compared.

Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, Slime Mould, Railway Design.

     FULL TEXT (TR)        

5. A Decision Support System Proposal for the Optimization of Traffic on the Bosphorus Line: E-Bosphorus

Esranur Demirtaş, Şehnaz Cenani

Page 49-70

Demirtaş, E., Cenani, Ş. (2020). Boğaz Hattındaki Trafiğin Optimizasyonuna Yönelik Bir Karar Destek Sistemi Önerisi: E-Bosphorus.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 49- 70.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1253309

ABSTRACT

The Bosphorus Line, one of the important regions of Istanbul, is faced with problems such as traffic congestion and noise pollution caused by this problem in the recreation areas on this line. The main reason for these problems is the intensity of transportation by individual vehicles. However, the traffic density on this line can be reduced as a result of the fact that public transportation is provided by sea transportation, which is a characteristic mode of transportation in Istanbul inner city transportation, which is exactly parallel to this route, and is preferred for reasons such as comfort, speed and price. The inefficient use of sea transport depending on factors such as route planning and expedition times poses a problem in choosing this type of transportation. Considering the available possibilities, it is possible to optimize the road traffic on the bosphorus line by encouraging individuals using sea transportation as a result of the smart synchronization of the routes and the time schedules connected to these routes. Therefore, it is aimed to show a way to make a better regulation by revealing the shortcomings of the current (maritime) traffic regulation. It is aimed to develop the conceptual framework of a decision support system that regulates maritime traffic and the benefits of the proposed system are stated. Decision tree and shortest path finding algorithms are used as methods in the study. In addition to the shortest path problem, finding the shortest time is one of the criteria discussed in this study. As a result, the shortest route and the routes to be reached in the shortest time were determined when going from a pier on the bosphorus line to another one. In addition, the interface design of an application (E-Bosphorus) has been developed to make the current bosphorus line ferry timetables more efficient

Keywords: Intelligent Seaborne Transportation, Bosphorus Line, Decision Support System, Route Finding.

     FULL TEXT (TR)         

6. Regenerating Modern Interiors into Science Fiction Environments via Cycle-GAN

Esra Yağdır Çeliker, Gizem Efendioğlu, Özgün Balaban

Page 71-94

Yağdır, E., Efendioğlu, G., Balaban, Ö. (2020). Cycle-GAN ile Modern İç Mekanlarının Bilim Kurgu Ortamları Olarak Yeniden Üretilmesi.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 71-94.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1255687

ABSTRACT

Deep learning is a machine learning method that uses artificial neural networks for complex tasks and problems that require the processing of large data sets. Deep learning has shown that it is possible to process the properties of the data that previously needed to be transferred to the computer by an expert person, only by a computer. Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) algorithm, one of the subsystems of deep learning, takes advantage of the contention of two neural networks working opposite each other. While the Generator produces fake images, the Discriminator evaluates the images and generates the information that the image is fake or real. This contentious situation between two networks repeats until the Discriminator cannot distinguish the image is fake. For this reason, researchers prefer to use the GAN especially in image processing and image translation problems. With the image processing techniques offered by deep learning, it is possible to process complex spatial data and to reproduce spatial fictions through images. The study aims to investigate the new spatial potentials of interior spaces with different characteristics. In this context, modern interiors are reinterpreted as distopic science fiction spaces by using the GAN algorithm, which is a suitable technique for image processing. In this study, we created two different data sets from modern interior photographs and science fiction movies. Thus, we tried to investigate how modern interiors can change morphologically when they become a part of science fiction movies.

Keywords: Cycle-GAN, Deep Learning, Machine Learning, Spatial Image Processing, Artificial İntelligence in Architecture.

     FULL TEXT (TR)         

7. Map Generation & Manipulation with Generative Adversarial Networks

Ozan Balcı, Şemsi Barış Terzi, Özgün Balaban

Page 95-114

Balcı, O., Terzi, B. Ş., Balaban, Ö. (2020). Çekişmeli Üretici Ağlar ile Harita Üretimi ve Manipülasyonu.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 95-114.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1255766

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence makes the Big Data processable as the spread of the Internet. Machine learning, which is a type of artificial intelligence, has made it easier to classify, interpret and process data. On the other hand, the development of graphics processing units has facilitated and accelerated the work done by providing the necessary infrastructure for processing data consisting of images. The development of image processing operation will enable the processing and production of architectural data sets consisting of images. This study aims to show the processability of the image set in map scale and to encourage to think and examine how the achievements in this process can be processed in different scales. In accordance with this purpose, satellite images and map images of a game are handled as data using a GAN model.The model, which is trained with satellite and game maps images contain different textures of nature, different types of transportation networks, settlements of different densities and qualities, can perform two-way transformations (game map from satellite image and satellite image from game map).The study focused on the generation of game maps from satellite images, and during the process, tests for the generation of game maps from satellite images of different locations around the world and analyzes based on these tests were conducted. As the last step of the study, to obtain the most successful results, the model inputs were optimized with the findings obtained from the analyzes and  by using satellite images of these regions, the game maps of ‘Istanbul Historical Peninsula’ and ‘Istanbul Göksu’ regions were produced.

Keywords: Generative Adversarial Networks, Machine Learning, Map Generation.

     FULL TEXT (TR)         

8. Classification of Historic Ornaments with CNN

Sevgi Altun, Cem Güneş

Page 115-131

Altun, S., Güneş, C. (2020). Evrişimsel Sinir Ağları Kullanarak Anadolu Selçuklu Desenlerinin Sınıflandırılması.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 115-131.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1248961

ABSTRACT

This paper is a critical assessment of an exploration of computer vision and deep learning methods in an architectural heritage context.  Convolutional neural network, a type of deep learning is implemented to classify a group of Anatolian Seljuk ornamental patterns. The field of computer vision offers the potentials to assist studies in the field of architectural heritage. However, there are limited studies that combine knowledge across the two fields. One frequently studied topic is image classification based on features. In this study, we took on the task of classifying Anatolian Seljuk ornamental patterns to investigate the potential. The project focused on carved ornamental patterns on flat surfaces due to ease of data collection. The group of images is collected and arranged as two different yet related datasets. The classes are floral and geometrical, and subclasses are sparse and dense for both. Two different CNN architectures are used to train models for predictions. The process and effect of dataset creation on the implementation are explained. Results are discussed from both the technical and architectural points of view, providing a basis for further interdisciplinary studies.

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Networks, Architectural Ornaments, Anatolian Seljuk Ornaments, Architectural Heritage, Artificial Intelligence

9. Oyunlaştırmanın Kişisel Veri Toplanmasına Etkisi

Tolga Bilbey, Tahir Sandıkkaya

Page 131-152

Bilbey, T., Sandıkkaya, M. T. (2020). Oyunlaştırmanın Kişisel Veri Toplanmasına Etkisi.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 131-152.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1188814

ABSTRACT

Oyunlaştırma, kişilerin gelişigüzel görevleri tamamlamasını güdülemekte kullanılır. İnternet altyapısının doksanlı yılların başında ticarileşmesiyle birlikte reklâm gelirleri ile bu altyapı fonlandı. Böylece küresel reklâm şirketleri, hedef kitleye daha iyi odaklanmak ve karlılığı artırmak için olabildiğince çok kişisel veri toplamayı hedeflediler. Bu amaçla uyumlu olarak, reklâm şirketlerinin İnternet üzerinden küresel çapta kullanmaya başlamalarıyla oyunlaştırmaya ilgi artmıştır. Bu yaklaşım kişilerin İnternet’i kullanmayı sürdürmek için özlük bilgilerinin gizliliğinden ödün vermesi gerektiği tartışmasını ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bu çalışma oyunlaştırmanın kişisel veri toplanmasına etkisinin gösterilmesini amaçlar. Etkiler, oyunlaştırılmış bir ortamda yürütülen bir anketle ölçülmüştür. Kişilerin beyanları ve demografik bilgileri, davranışları ile örtüştürülerek gözlenmiştir. Çalışmanın ortaya koyduğu en dikkat çekici sonuç; kişiler farkına varmadan davranışlarının değiştirilebileceğidir. Bu durumda, oyunlaştırma uygulamalarını sürdüren kişilerin etik değerlerle çelişmemek için son derece dikkatli olmaları gerekir.

Keywords: Oyunlaştırma, Özlük Bilgilerinin Gizliliği, Anket.

10. Yapay Zeka Çırakları İnsan Emsallerinden Daha İyi Performans Gösterirse?

Lale Başarır

Page 153-166

Başarır, L.  (2020). Yapay Zeka Çırakları İnsan Emsallerinden Daha İyi Performans Gösterirse?  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 151-166.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1255756

ABSTRACT

Bu çalışmanın odak noktası, mimarinin bilgi tabanı bir yapay zekaya teslim edildiğinde bilgisayar destekli mimarinin artık yapay zeka destekli mimariye (AIAA) nasıl dönüşebileceğine dair bir vizyon çizmektir. Bu nedenle böyle bir mimarinin vizyonu, insanın evriminin çağlarına uygun olarak tasvir edilmiştir. Bu nedenle, mimarlığın örtük bilgisi, veri / bilgi / bilgi birikimi ve bilgelik hiyerarşisi ile bağlantılı olarak incelenmektedir. Bu nedenle, AI uygulamalarının mevcut durumunu ve olası geleceğini tanımlama bağlamında, Yapay Dar Zekâ (YDZ)I, Yapay Genel Zekâ (YGZ) ve Yapay Süper Zekâ (YSZ)olarak kavramsal seviyeleri okuyucuya tanıtılmaktadır. Dar yapay zeka uygulamaları, farklı alanlarda birbirinden bağımsız olarak çalışılmaktadır. Bu çalışma, bilgi çağında mimarlığın tüm bilgisini öğrenen ve daha sonra kendisini bilgelik çağında YGZ’ye bağlayan varsayımsal bir mimar yapay zekayı okuyucuya sunulmaktadır. Mimarların, gelecekteki çıraklarını en iyi ve özelleştirilmiş mekanları yaratma uygulamaları için eğitmek istiyorlarsa üstlenmeleri gereken, kullanıcı odaklı yaklaşıma vurgu yapılmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, yapay zeka ile üretilen çıktıların, hala “tasarım” olarak kabul edilip edilemeyeği tartışılmaktadır.

Keywords: Yapay Zeka, Yapay Genel Zeka, Yapay Zeka Destekli Mimar, Mimarlık Bilgisi, Kullanıcı Odaklı Tasarım

11. GAN ile Mimari Plan Üretimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi Üzerine Bir Durum Çalışması

Can Uzun

Page 167-182

Uzun, C. (2020). GAN ile Mimari Plan Üretimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi Üzerine Bir Durum Çalışması.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(3), 167-182.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1266251

ABSTRACT

Bu çalışma GAN algoritması çıktılarının değerlendirildiği yöntemlerin değerlendirilmesi üzerine bir çalışma niteliğindedir. GAN çıktısı değerlendirme yöntemleri her nekadar literatürde kabul görmüş olsa da mimari plan şemalarından oluşan bir veri seti eğitim çıktılarında da GAN verimliliğinin aynı değerlendirme yöntemleri ile kullanılıp kullanılmaması cevaplanması gereken bir soru halindedir. Bu çalışma boyunca GAN algoritmasının alt sınıfında bulunan DCGAN algoritması ile üretilmiş Palladyan plan şemalarının ve GAN algoritmasının verimliliği değerlendilirmiştir. Bu değerlendirme yapılırken GAN algoritmasının literatürde kabul görmüş nicel ve nitel değerlendirme yöntemlerinden sırasıylsa Frechet Inception Distance ve hızlı sahne sınıflandırması kullanılmıştır. Değerlendirme sonucunda bu yöntemlerin mimari plan üretimi için uygunluğu tartışılmıştır. Metnin sonnda nicel ve nitel GAN değerlendirme yöntemlerinin mimari plan şeması üretimlerini değerlendirmek üzere özelleşmiş yeni yöntemlere ihtiyacı olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.

Keywords: GAN Değerlendirme, Frechet Inception Distance, Hızlı Sahne Sınıflandırması.

     FULL TEXT (TR)         

ISSN 2687-4318

 

Whole Journal

in Flip Page

 

Cover

1. Cover

Page I

       PDF              

Editorial

2. Building Information Modelling

Gülen Çağdaş, Ethem Gürer, Sema Alaçam

Page V

    PDF             

Research Articles

3. Evaluation Of Decision Making Processes In The Early Design Stage With Building Information Modeling In The Context Of Sustainability

Ömer Halil Çavuşoğlu, Gülen Çağdaş

Pages 1-26

Çavuşoğlu, Ö. H. & Çağdaş, G. (2020). Evaluation of Decision-Making Processes in the Early Design Stage with Building Information Modeling in the Context of Sustainability. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(2), 1-26.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode/issue/53480/703309

 

Abstract

Starting with the Industrial Revolution, there has been a change and development in world history at an unprecedented speed. As a result of the developments in the last fifty years, the emerging needs and the solutions implemented; global warming problem affecting the world globally, significant climate changes, ozone depletion, the danger of depletion of underground resources, increased energy consumption, and environmental pollution have emerged. Researches show that this situation is directly related to the field of architecture and particularly architectural design. To overcome this situation, new architectural design tools and approaches started to be developed. In this context, design tools for massing have been developed for Building Information Modeling environments and the conceptual analysis and simulations have been provided. Thus, the designers have been offered the environment to test their designs with certain conceptual and presumptive inputs and to evaluate their work in the context of sustainability even at the early design stage.
From this perspective, the primary aim of this study is to examine the impact of new design tools presented by Building Information Modeling environments on early design decisions in the context of sustainability and to examine the findings. The research questions identified to achieve this aim are as follows:
o What intensity of physical and cognitive design actions occur in protocol studies?
o Is it possible to identify any similarities or differences in the context of the distribution of design actions the participants have undertaken within the scope of these working processes?
o How do feedbacks provided by the Building Information Modeling environment contribute to or influence early design decisions?

Keywords: BIM, Building Information Modeling, Sustainability, Decision making in design, Protocol Analysis.

   FULL TEXT (TR)         

4. Electronic Procurement Systems and Building Information Modeling Integration in Construction Sector: A Case Study

Ayşen Saraç Çıracıoğlu, Hakan Yaman

Pages 27-40

Çıracıoğlu, A. S., Yaman, H. (2020). Electronic Procurement Systems and Building Information Modeling Integration in Construction Sector: A Case Study. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(2), 27- 40.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode/issue/53480/695172

 

ABSTRACT

With the help of the rapid developments of information and communication technologies, construction sector has made a great progress in the last decade. Procurement terms which are one of the important components of the construction, were also affected by the improvements on the field of the information and communication technologies; electronic medium has become an environment for procurement process. Although electronic medium has been able to be used for procurement terms since 2000’s, in contrast with the other sectors that use e-procurement terms, the utilization of it in the construction sector has fallen behind.
In this paper Building Information Modeling (BIM) is proposed as an alternative solution to the ineffective usage of e-procurement terms in construction field. The qualitative method was considered appropriate, as this study is exploratory in nature and the BIM-e-procurement process integration concept may be new to Turkish building professionals, being rarely reported in the Turkish Construction industry. The research has been undertaken in several stages. To begin with, the extensive previous literature review has provided an overview of different e-procurement applications those are implemented all around the world. Also, interaction between BIM functionalities and e-procurement process. As an example, Türkiye Elektronik Kamu Alımları Platformu (EKAP) is examined in detail in terms of construction, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with the experts in EKAP and it is compared with one of the most sophisticated application for e-procurement application for all around the world, KONEPS, South Korean e-procurement application. Throughout the findings of the research EKAP-BIM integration is suggested for a new solution over construction sector.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Cloud Computing, Electronic Procurement, Interoperability, Public e-Procurement

     FULL TEXT (TR)        

5. The Integration of Computational Design with BIM: The Exploration of New Possibilities with “Dynamo”

Enes Kaan Karabay

Pages 41-64

Karabay, E. K. (2020). The Integration of Computational Design with BIM: The Exploration of New Possibilities with “Dynamo”.  JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(2), 41- 64.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode/issue/53480/713157

ABSTRACT

In this article, new opportunities emerged with the graphic programming language added on BIM will be examined. Open source Dynamo was chosen as the working environment. The new system created by Revit and Dynamo, was named as Computational BIM.
In the article, the stages of the study which includes Computational BIM in a design process will be explained. Autodesk has also added a plugin called “DynamoPlayer” to Revit. This plugin makes it easy to use written algorithms in a large group of designers and reduces the need for information; this opens the way for automation by the end user. As an advanced language created by Autodesk, “DesignScript” is integrated directly into Dynamo, and also Python scripts can be written directly into the Dynamo environment. With all its advantages, the Revit environment integrated with Dynamo offers a new paradigm shift as “Computational BIM”. Algorithms are used to execute commands on geometry and BIM database and to create logical and mathematical operations. With the help of these logical operations, the workforce required for recurring tasks can be reduced. Algorithm-supported design concept is generally used to define methods in computer environment. In the article, the concept of “computation” is used instead of “algorithm supported” due to the change in the knowledge-based system.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Computational BIM, Computational Design.

    FULL TEXT (TR)         

6. Building Smart with Using BIM Correctly

Ayşe Polat

Pages 65-73

Polat, A. (2020). Building Smart with Using BIM Correctly. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 1(2), 65-73.

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jcode/issue/53480/714130

ABSTRACT

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an important disruptive technology for the design and construction industries. In order to have more collaboration among parties, we need to use BIM with all the tools and approaches. Successful process in design modeling can lead to a very successful BIM
coordination in construction.

Keywords: Building Smart, Building Information Modeling (BIM)

    FULL TEXT (EN)         

Volume: 01   No: 01  –  January 2019

Cover

1. Cover

    Page I

   PDF

Editorial

2. Form Finding

    Gülen Çağdaş, Ethem Gürer, Sema Alaçam

    Page V

    PDF

Articles

3. Binding Behavior Study of Mycelium in Flexible Formwork

    Gülay Elbasdı, Sema Alaçam

    Pages 01-10

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (TR)

4. Transformation Of Dance Motion Data To Form Through The Computational                   Environment

     Sinem Kırkan, Gülen Çağdaş

     Pages 11-34

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (TR)

5. A Form Finding Approach with Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces

    Yusuf Reşat Güner, Gülen Çağdaş

    Pages 35-54

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (TR)

6. Computing and Knitting in the Context of Concrete Shell Structures

    Serenay Elmas, Sema Alaçam

     Pages 55-64

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (TR)

7. A Node Pattern Approach in Categorizing General Form Typologies

    Anday Bodur, Ethem Gürer

     Pages 65-86

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (TR)

8. Computing and Knitting in the Context of Concrete Shell Structures

    Çağlan Çelebi

     Pages 87-109

    ABSTRACT         FULL TEXT (EN)

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