Computational Model in Design

The ninth issue of JCoDe approaches the concept of modeling from a computational perspective. Modeling is an essential part of the design process, creating abstract representations of the real world. Modeling as an action that produces concrete and abstract outputs in the design process and the model as the conceptual, physical, and digital output of the modeling, the action plays an essential role in the production, testing, and evaluation of the design alternatives. In this sense, the model can be an input or an intermediate product of the design process, contributing to the iterative development of design ideas. Model as an action and object not only enhances problem-solving processes in design but also supports the constitution and refinement of the ill-defined design problems by transformingvarious data layers that seem unrelated to each other into meaningful sub-parts.

Beyond a sketch, working model, prototype, or 3D solid model in design, computational models offer approaches that enable the representation of dynamic processes such as simulation models, behavior model, information model, cognition model, cognitive model, and performance model. The representation of a complex process through rules, parameters and relations form the basis of procedural, generative, and algorithmic models. Computational models provide abstract structures that are versatile and can be adapted to a variety of design, analysis, optimization, and production contexts. However, in some pioneering cases, they are developed as a digital craft activity that is context-sensitive and problem-specific. However, every model has its limitations, and reductionism is inherent in the modeling process. The assumptions, conditions or methods emphasized in a computational model can significantly impact its sensitivity, validity, accuracy, and effectiveness. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the critically relationship between the computational model and the design context.

In this context, the ninth issue of JCoDe is intended to stimulate discussions on the theoretical and practical foundations of computational models in design; computational modeling for optimization and simulation in design; generative design approaches using computational models; computational models for design analysis and evaluation, case studies utilizing computational models.


May 5, 2023: Launch of the call for papers

June 26, 2023 : Deadlines for fullpaper submissions via Dergipark

July 24, 2023: Notification of accept/reject/revisions to authors

Augıst 14, 2023: Revision submission

September 18, 2023: Publication of the issue


ISSN 2687-4318


Whole Journal in Flip Page




1. Cover

Page I


2. Representation in Design in the Age of Computation

Gülen Çağdaş, Ethem Gürer, Sema Alaçam

Page V


3. Informal Learning in the Context of Digital Design Pedagogy in Architecture

Asena Kumsal Şen Bayram, Orkan Zeynel Güzelci, Sema Alaçam

Page 1-16

Şen Bayram, A. K., Güzelci, O. Z. & Alaçam, S. (2023). Informal Learning in the Context of Digital Design
Pedagogy in Architecture. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design,
4(1), 01-16.


The adaptation process of architecture to the information age has been taking place with a rapid change in the context of tools, methods and cognitive processes. The effects of this process, called digital design, necessitate the reconsideration of architectural design pedagogy in the context of these emerging design approaches. This study proposes a workshop-based framework to support the development of a digital architectural design pedagogy that is rooted on informal learning approaches and aims to adapt to current conditions and needs. The study starts with a literature review examining the interaction of the processes between the designer and the design in action and concept cycle changes with digital architectural transformations. The data obtained from this section emphasizes the necessity of pedagogical models of digital design to be in different cycles in the designer-design relationship. Therefore, the second part of the study continues with an examination of informal learning, which is considered to contribute to this research by presenting alternative approaches to the tutor-student relationship and differing from the commonly accepted pedagogical models with its flexible and adaptable structure. In addition, this section reveals the relationship between the aspects of informal learning and the scope related to the methodology. The developed framework consists of three main axes as; (i) distance – reunion; (ii) replication of transitions between physical and digital environments; (iii) different strategies, from solid modelling to parametric and generative modelling. The framework was tested during the COVID-19 pandemic with three (consecutive) workshops following/adopting online and informal methods. The third section explains these test processes in detail with their particular relations to the framework. In conclusion, the framework is discussed in terms of its applicability and repeatability.


Keywords: Informal Learning, Digital Design, Architecture Education, Architectural Design Pedagogy, Workshop

4. Developing Advanced Representation Techniques Using Mindfulness Method

Zeynep Birgönül, Merve Öksüz

Page 17-44

Birgonul, Z. & Oksuz, M. (2023). Developing Advanced Representation Techniques Using Mindfulness Method. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 17-44.


The “SELF.SAFE.SPACE” project, developed by 15 students and guided by 2 instructors within the “Advanced Representation Techniques” elective course, aimed to augment creativity skills in design and visualization by practicing mindfulness methods. During the semester, an experimental learning procedure was followed, allowing learners to explore personal representation methods and reach the edges of creativity using both traditional and digital visualization tools. The studio methodology was based on developing cognitive, skill-based, and affective outcomes while improving design capabilities and enhancing the usage of modeling and visualization software.

The project targeted the creation of a utopic and particular place that students create as a result of safe-space meditation exercises. Mindfulness practices were performed during class, and some students exercised voluntarily between weekly classes. The awareness and attention levels and creativity measures increased each week, as observed by the researchers and confirmed by self-evaluation inventories at the end of the semester. As a result of practicing mindfulness techniques daily, students created and visualized their imagery space and reflected on their personal journey into the augmentation of creativity.

Although current representation techniques allow for the creation of impressive visuals, they often create similar narratives and come to life as repetitions of valid representation methods. This situation may cause digital tools not to give desired results without reaching the ability to use them at a very good level, potentially blunting creativity and preventing students from reaching the limits of their imagination. However, it is possible for students to discover original representation techniques by putting their creativity at the forefront with the right motivational techniques, nurturing their imaginations, and taking bold steps toward unique and advanced representation methods.

In the age of computation, representation methods in design create original narratives and allow the use of existing programs in extraordinary ways, thanks to digital technologies. Within the scope of this research, the study designed in line with an experimental method shows that students can increase their creativity by doing mindfulness exercises and, therefore, can use digital representation methods more efficiently.

Keywords: Advanced Representation Techniques, Architectural Representation, Creativity, Design Education, Mindfulness-Based Design Practice, Self-Expression.

    5. Questioning the Transformation of Representation in Architecture Through  the Discrete Paradigm

Zeynep Sena Sancak

Page 45-70

Sancak, Z. S. (2023). Examining the Transformation of Representation in Architecture through the Discrete Paradigm. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 45-70


Representation in architecture refers to the set of methods designers use to express their thought processes. With the incorporation of computers into daily use, these methods have evolved and diversified, leading to various inquiries and new forms of representation. The focus of this study is the relationship between the discrete paradigm, a recently discussed concept, and architectural representation. The study aims to develop a new discourse by experimenting with the fundamental building blocks and rules of architecture using discrete paradigm computational design methods. In this context, the study is shaped around two questions: What is the discrete paradigm in architecture, and how is the design process realized? The study aims to discuss views on the discrete paradigm and examine the relationship between design and representation. The study consists of three parts. In the first chapter, the concept of representation is defined, and the transformation of representation processes in the computer environment from the 1960s to the present day is discussed. In the second part, the discrete paradigm is defined, and opinions on the subject and produced projects are included. Simultaneously, the concepts of discrete, continuity, and mereology, which form the basis of the discrete paradigm, are discussed. In the third part, form experiments were conducted in Rhino Grasshopper to examine the paradigm’s representation in the computer environment.The study is important for exploring the potentials and representation methods of the relationship from part to whole, which is not often considered in the design process.


Anahtar Kelimeler: Dijital Habitus, Dijital Ayrıcalık, Arama davranışı, Tasarım Araçları Pratikleri, Tasarım Odaklı Arama

6. The Digital Habitus of Architecture: Praxis of Design-oriented Internet Usage

Hanife Sümeyye Taşdelen, Leman Figen Gül

Page 71-98

Taşdelen, H. S., & Gül, L. F. (2023). The Digital Habitus of Architecture: Praxis of Design-oriented Internet Usage. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 71-98. 


This study examines the visual-search and information-gathering behavior of architects in the early architectural design phase in relation to varied media tools. The study proposes the idea that navigation skills in online media help designers discover more creative solution areas during their design process. Conceptual conclusions are made based on the results obtained from the field study and the literature review, discussing the concept constituting the habitus of digital architecture. The researchers re-evaluated their conceptual proposal by applying design experiments to examine the phenomena contained in the habitus of design-oriented research. The results from the experiments are discussed in detail, focusing on whether correlation exists between the interviewees’ expressions and designers’ practices. Field theory, as elaborated by Pierre Bourdieu in 1984, is adapted to the digital habitus of architecture. Two fields of design-oriented digital habitus, online and offline, are identified, considering the process of design-oriented knowledge production. The fields forming the habitus of digital architecture and the possible advantages that may occur based on these fields are identified. Finally, the meaning of having digital privilege for architects is evaluated in terms of the future of architecture.

Keywords: Digital habitus, Digital privilege, Search behavior, Design tool practices, Design-oriented search 

7.  A Method for Decoding and Representing Time in Four dimensional Spaces via Digital Game Environment

Betül Uyan, Sevil Yazıcı

Page 99-120

Uyan, B., & Yazıcı, S. (2023). A Method for Decoding and Representing Time in Fourdimensional Spaces via Digital Game Environment. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 99-120.


The search for novel representation methods is a critical component of the creative design process. Discoveries in science, such as four-dimensional (4D) spacetime, have influenced artists and architects. However, existing representation techniques constrained in two-dimensional (2D) sheets for 4D spacetime representation are considered a limitation of the architecture discipline. Currently, digital game environments are potential mediums for 4D architectural representation. This study aims to decode and represent time as an entity of 4D spaces. Digital game environments provide the necessary flexibility for experimenting in 4D space. Therefore, Unity game engine and C# programming are used together with computer-aided design (CAD) tools to generate 4D representations. 4D representations are based on two different impressions of the time dimension: (1) time dilation and (2) distortion of spacetime. While time dilation is represented via motion blur (mB) script, distortion of spacetime is represented via motion trail (mT) script. As preliminary results, metrics of the time dimension in 4D spatio-temporal representations are introduced. Experimental 4D representations produced via Unity game engine and C# programming are presented to discuss the potential of game environments to be the medium of architectural representation.

Keywords:  4D Spacetime, Architectural Representation, Digital Game Engine.

8.  Measuring Spatial Perception through Visual Representation and Narrative 

Nur Sipahioğlu, Ethem Gürer

Page 121-144

Sipahioğlu, N. & Gürer, E. (2023). Measuring Spatial Perception through Visual Representation and Narrative. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 121-144


Visual thinking and perception are significant in architectural design. The progress of the design process through drawings and the use of drawings in the realization of the space increase the importance given to visuality. However, architectural design should not be limited to sight alone. There is also a narrative or written expression besides the drawings. Even though sight comes before speech, it is through language that we describe what we see, and what is seen is perceived with language. The spatial perception is shaped by visual representation and verbal expression. Perception and vision have been the subject of disciplines such as psychology, cognition and philosophy. The way of perceiving space is not the same for everyone. Visual representations of space (sketches, photographs, plans, sections, etc.) can be egocentric or exocentric, as well as depicted from a different perspective due to the way each person sees things. In this respect, visual representation becomes a tool for understanding and explaining space. However, just seeing may not be enough when describing or trying to understand space. As humans are accustomed to communicating with language, they naturally resort to verbal expressions and narrating things. While vision has evolved as we communicated with the world around us, language is a social system that humans have developed to communicate with each other. Studies on the perception of space have mostly been approached from the point of visual thinking. However, sight and language provide access to different information regarding space. The diversity in information collected through vision and language can complete the mental image of architectural space. The aim of this study is to examine the formation of spatial perception through visual and verbal representations. The study is based on the view that grounding the perception of space only on the sense of sight is restrictive and perception is influenced by both visual representation and verbal expression. The suggestion is that visual and verbal representations support each other, thus strengthening spatial perception. In this study, protocol analyses were conducted in order to find out how the narrative affects the visual representation and vice versa, and how this interaction between the visual representation and narrative shapes spatial perception.

Keywords: Spatial perception, Visual representation, Narrative.

9. Instrumentalizing the Curved Line as a Design Research

Çağın Tanrıverdi Çetin

Page 45-166

Tanrıverdi Çetin, Ç. (2023). Instrumentalizing the Curved Line as a Design Research. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 145-166.


Curvature is a centuries-old concept in architecture. Alongside experiences and improving tools and techniques, the tendency to use curvilinear forms has been evolving in parallel with the necessities of the time. This study explores the diversity and potentials of the ways and tools used to produce curvature, with the question of whether the direct link between tools and procedure | method may open up a creative ground in the possibilities of curvature in architectural representation. It is claimed that the method of representation is shaped by the means, technology, and mentality of the conjuncture in which it is produced. The interaction between the representation tool and method in design education is important because of its impact on the designer’s thought process and problem-solving approach. The method of the study, which developed as an iterative process including producing, testing, and evaluating steps, was determined as research by design. The study aims to gain the habit of seeing the elements that appear in motion and time by investigating the possibilities of instruments that produce curvilinear. The reason for focusing on the curved line is that curvilinearity is seen as a way of discovering and representing new relationships that evoke connectivity, continuity, movement, and fluidity by getting out of the boundaries of directness, precision, stability, and the determined. The study, which approaches curvature as an alternative to the normative, rational, and fixed, emphasizes that questioning and designing the tools that lead to architectural representation are also included in the design process. In this context, with the support of the theoretical background established in the focus of curvilinear lines and drawing tools, the materials of the “curve workshop”, which was conducted within the scope of the elective course called Alternative Representation in Design (Tasarımda Alternatif Temsil, in Turkish) held at the Faculty of Architecture of Trakya University in the fall semester of 2021-2022, formed the basis for this study. In this workshop, tools with a mechanical movement were designed to represent curved lines and their prototypes were produced. Curve drawing tools, experienced by video recording, were evaluated together with the reports of each student describing their own work. During the design process, students’ ideas, material choices, or production methods changed and evolved. In this process, students’ understanding of curvature, their criticism, and how they interpreted the curvilinear were factors that nourished representation research as well as their prototypes. In future studies, it may be suggested to consider and investigate the curvilinear in combination with analog and digital environments.

Keywords: Tool, Curved line, Architectural representation, Method.

 10.  An experience-based method for personalized routing 

Özlem Çavuş, Sehnaz Cenani, Gülen Çağdaş

Sayfa 167-191

Çavuş, Ö., Cenani, Ş., & Çağdaş, G. (2023). An experience-based method for personalized routing. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 4(1), 167-191.


Navigation devices that are tailored to the user’s preferences offer personalized routes. When multiple users are involved, it can be hard to find a route that suits everyone’s preferences and avoid conflicting interests. A decision support system can improve the quality of user decisions. Traditional systems typically consider only the predefined preferences of one user or a group with similar preferences. This study aims to develop a decision support system for a group of people with diverse preferences, using a method that considers their experiences regarding time and space. The method utilizes IoT, agent-based modeling, multi-objective optimization, and crowdsourced data to create a personalized navigation system for a group, such as a family car, that considers each group member’s preferences. The study uses simulation to demonstrate how this method can be applied, and it is created using Grasshopper for Rhino and add-ons. The main original contribution of this research is to show how social aspects can be incorporated into personalized navigation systems for a heterogeneous group. The major challenge was the data-sharing policies.

Keywords: Agent-based modelling, Crowdsourced Data, IoT, Multi-user, Personalized Routing., Agent-based modelling, Crowdsourced Data, IoT, Multi-user, Personalized Routing.

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