2. Emergence in Design
Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer
3.Emergence and Complexity in Agent-based Modeling: Review of Stare-of-the-art Tools
Cenani, S. (2021). Emergence and complexity in agent-based modeling: review of state-of-the-art tools. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 01-24. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.983476
Agent-based systems are an important application area of artificial intelligence and are used in decision support systems. Rather than being a problem-solving tool, agent-based system is a tool for developing and testing alternative solutions according to various scenarios. In this context, agent-based modeling is a very effective method to support decision makers in emergency situations to evaluate different risk scenarios and then make decisions quickly and effectively. Moreover, agent-based modeling is a very useful method to support decision makers in situations of high complexity and uncertainty. This paper introduces current studies performed with several agent-based modeling tools and software environments such as NetLogo, AnyLogic, MATSim and Repast. Apart from these, various agent-based modeling tools exist, but these four tools have been chosen because they are still receiving software updates and being widely used in the most current studies. The aims of this study are to review these four agent-based modeling tools, present state-of-the-art research conducted with these tools and provide a reference of agent-based modeling tools for researchers who are developing decision support systems in architectural, urban and transportation design research fields. In this paper, after giving a brief definition of an agent-based system and explaining the importance of concepts such as emergence and complexity in the field of agent-based modeling, it is explained who uses the agent-based models for what purpose, when, where, why and how to use agent-based modeling through selected examples from state-of-the-art studies carried out in different research fields. Furthermore, what current studies and agent-based modeling tools teach us and how future studies can benefit from agent-based models are briefly discussed.
Keywords: Agent-based Modeling, Emergence, Complexity, Uncertainty, Simulation.
4. Generating Optimal High-rise Building Suggestions According to Solar Radiation and Shade Using Genetic Algorithms
Saltık, E. (2021). generating optimal high-rise building suggestions according to solar radiation and shade using genetic algorithms. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 25-50.
Heating and cooling costs and energy consumption in buildings constitute a great burden. In addition, because high-rise buildings create long and large shadows, they limit and sometimes completely prevent the hours of direct sunlight for the surrounding buildings. Due to these two features, high-rise buildings increase the energy consumption of the city and reduce the comfort of life. High-rise buildings also try to create as much area as possible, as they have a specific purpose of maximum rentable area. Can we reduce energy consumption in the building itself and its surroundings, and increase the quality of life by using evolutionary approaches in the concept design phase of high-rise buildings? The aim of this study is to achieve these goals at the optimum level without reducing the targeted total building area excessively. It is an important feature that the designer can see and intervene in the concept phase of different solution proposals that meet these conditions by using genetic algorithms. Numerous studies have been conducted on form and mass in architectural design using evolutionary approaches and genetic algorithms. With developments in computation, the number and level of detail of these studies have increased and the computation time has shortened. In this study, Wallacei plugin, which is an evolutionary approach plugin using NSGA-II / Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, was used. In addition to the studies focusing on the urban texture and features with genetic algorithms, there are also studies focusing on the building design and the building envelope. This study focuses on the mass of the building and its effect on the urban fabric and can be a method for early-stage mass analysis and design. In order to test these suggestions, a sample existing high-rise building and its different alternatives produced by evolutionary algorithms were compared by fitness values. The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago was chosen as an example building. The simple but effective mass form of the structure provides advantages and diversity in analysis and calculations. The case building is located in a climatic region like Chicago where all four seasons are experienced, and its effects on its surroundings can be easily observed. In the methodology, we calculate the total floor area of the current design of Sears Tower, the solar radiation it receives in a certain period, the shadow it casts on the nearby buildings and the sky view from different parts of the building as first step. The second step is to make choices among the alternatives produced according to these four eligibility criteria. As a result of the study, forms that provide good fitness values from the original building in different criteria were produced, and results that were better than the original design in all other values were obtained by meeting the building area criterion. Rhinoceros 3D program and sub-plugins of Grasshopper plugin were used to make these analyzes. The Elk plugin was used for city data of Chicago. The Ladybug plugin was used for sun and shadow analysis. The Wallacei plugin was used for simulation and analysis with genetic algorithms. At this stage of the study, materials and structural elements are out of scope, analyzes are made over mass studies.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, High-rise Buildings, Optimization, Solar Radiation, Shade.
5. A Spatial Grammar Model for Designing Mass Customized High-rise Housing Blocks
Ahmet Emre Dinçer , Gülen Çağdaş
Dinçer, A. E. & Çağdaş, G. (2021). A spatial grammar model for designing mass customized high-rise housing blocks. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 51-72. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.985063
Emergence as a product of natural processes is a typical feature for traditional and vernacular housing settlements created by different users with their various needs. However, this feature disappears in housing production approaches for uniform and standard users due to mass production concerns. The main reason is that user needs cannot be fully transferred to design strategies due to excessive standardization. One of the main factors in this is the need for design tools and methods that effectively evaluate preferences with complex relationships. Shape grammars and spatial grammars, one of the generative design approaches, exhibit original emergence examples with their rich diversity and adaptability to different approaches. Hence, it can be seen as an alternative for solving such problems. This article presents a parametric spatial grammar model that can design high-rise housing blocks with a customized dwelling for each family. The compositions of these houses are grounded on specific spatial relationships defined by parametric rule sets. In the article, the generative design process was developed in two stages. The first stage includes the formal, syntactical, and functional relations of the spaces in a floor plan, their representation according to the rules, and generating alternative solutions. The second stage consists of the representation of the façade rules and the parametric grammar that generates the façades. In the developed spatial grammar model, user preferences are transferred to the computer through the designed interface. Dimensional properties of housing blocks are defined by a grid system, which is determined according to user preferences and used as a starting base for spatial grammar. Plan layouts are generated on this defined grid and by sequential application of rules. In conclusion, the adaptability of spatial grammar and the rich alternatives designers can use and develop are emphasized.
Keywords: Emergence, Spatial Grammar, Mass Customization, Housing Design, Generative Design.
6. Shell Design by Integration of Origami and Cellular Automata
Hatice Melike Özbek
Özbek, H. M. (2021). Shell design by integration of origami and cellular automata. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 73-102. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.983226
In this study, an emerging shell design was made by using origami and cellular automata in an integrated way. The state of being kinetic and being able to change and transform, which comes from the nature of origami; is an inspirational situation in an architectural design. Use of origami can provide unexpected results to the designer. Producing an integrated system with the concept of emergence, creating a system that emerges with the determined rules and the interactions between the parts in the system themselves will strengthen the design. At the beginning of the study, different origami models were tried; The origami pattern with the parabola form, which will most support the concept of emergence, was used. Within the scope of the study, the modular use of origami was discussed and cellular automata was used in the assembly of the modules. The use of modules and the combination of modules by use of cellular automata; strengthened the relationship of the study with the concept of emergence. Numerous variations will be produced by the cellular automata, and all these examples will be able to enter different forms with their own state of motion; will produce numerous alternatives for the designer and the user for different spaces and scenarios. In this context, origami was first discovered through manual trials, and the system to be used was decided, and then digital modeling and productions were supported. Manual and digital production methods supported each other; The development of the model and design has been achieved through feedback in the process. The “Crane” plug-in was used to create origami simulations for models created with Rhino-Grasshopper. Simulating origami movement in digital productions; It has been a guide in terms of the forms in which shell designs that are difficult to produce in manual studies, consisting of many modules. At the same time, the simulation steps have been guiding in the scope of the study in terms of how the user-interactive movements will be in real life and the form that the shell will take. In the continuation of the study, research was carried out for the production of the design, and a system proposal was developed. Finally, the kinetic state of this system has been investigated and studies have been carried out on the system that will provide the movement. It has been seen that origami has led the designer to many alternative designs with the appropriate material and system selection. With the kinetic system of origami and its support with cellular automata; A shell design that supports the appearance in every aspect, is user-interactive, and can adapt to different scenarios has been achieved. The realization of different productions through the user route, which will be determined in a place at the beginning, has ensured that the concept of emergence is specific to the place. At the same time, the use of cellular automata with popular configurations has contributed to creating different design alternatives.
Keywords: Cellular Automata, Emergence, Generative System, Origami.
7. Analysis of Structural System Behaviors for Architectural Form Alternatives in the Schematic Design
Özdemir, S. (2021). Analysis of structural system behaviors for architectural form alternatives in the schematic design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 103-126. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.984086
The schematic design phase, in which the architectural form is determined, is the phase where the greatest benefits can be produced with small changes. In the schematic design stage, the structural features of the building can also be taken into account to a very limited extent as like the amount of sunlight, prevailing wind directions, topography, and the relationship with neighboring buildings. This is because the designer or engineer specialized for structural analysis is usually not involved in the schematic design phase. The structural designer begins to contribute to the design at the stage where the building form reaches a certain level of development. In this phase, where the main form of the building is determined, the structural data undertakes the task of producing solutions to realize the design, rather than being the information that feeds the design. In structural system calculations, there are many components such as soil behavior, seismic properties, strength data of materials and the purpose for which the building will be used. It is often not possible for the architect, who is already focused on the design processes, to devote time to a detailed analysis of the structural features at this level. In addition, structural analysis and calculations do not occupy a large place in the education life of the architect. Unlike traditional design processes, when a building's form is roughly revealed, adding basic structural data to the design knowledge pool will make the design unique, make the designer's decisions more accurate and the structure will guide the architectural form. It will contribute to the detailed analyzes to be made during the advanced design phase and to the compliance with the standards required by the regulations. It is also expected to be effective in the coordinated work of design stakeholders. The design tool, which allows the assignment of carrier materials and sections to structural elements, will present the weight of the structure and the regions where maximum stresses occur to the user at the schematic design stage. In this study, in the schematic design phase, with the emergence of the architectural form, a computation tool is proposed that can make structural analyzes for both parametric design and traditional design and produce results.
Keywords: Structural Analysis, Schematic Design, Karamba3D, Computation.
8. A Decision Support System for Placing Shared E-Scooters:
A Case Study for Istanbul
Begüm Moralioğlu, Şehnaz Cenani, Gülen Çağdaş
Moralıoğlu, B., Cenani, Ş. & Çağdaş, G. (2021). A decision support system for placing shared e-scooters: a case study for Istanbul. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 127-148. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.978704
A smart and sustainable city should be an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies to improve the quality of life via its operations. They need to be planned, managed, and regulated by open data collected through different data sources to provide efficient services. Transportation services can be accepted as one of the essential services of a city. In smart cities, intelligent transportation systems help to solve problems such as traffic congestion or the amount of fuel spent in traffic by providing communication between vehicles and devices that build the whole transportation network. In order to achieve the success of intelligent transportation systems, transportation methods should be planned dynamically according to the collected data and the requirements of the city's transportation network. E-scooters are also a part of the transportation system, and since 2017, shared e-scooter systems have been used as a transportation alternative in some cities. However, e-scooters are placed in random locations in cities without relying on a precise algorithm. Thus, users in some locations cannot benefit from the e-scooter sharing system efficiently due to the lack of e-scooter in neighborhoods. In this study, a decision support system for e-scooter sharing systems is suggested, which helps to place e-scooters dynamically in areas that are needed in the city. This system is intended to offer select options by combining the traffic density information of the regions and alternative region data provided by the multi-criteria analysis made using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with real-time social media data.
Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Decision Support Systems, Shared E-Scooter Systems, Smart and Sustainable Cities, Social Media.
9. A Form Finding Process Based on Movement Analysis: “Kinematics” Online Design Workshop Results
Sinem Kırkan, Ayça Şentop Dümen
Kırkan, S. & Şentop Dümen, A. (2021). A form finding process based on movement analysis: “Kinematics” online design workshop results. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 149-172.
All creatures experience their surroundings through their corporal movements along with other senses. Therefore, the terms "architecture", "movement" and "body" are strongly connected to each other. Using body and movement data effectively in form creation can significantly nourish the design and the designer. From this sense, research is essential to enlighten new methods and expression techniques that will assist implementation of these data in the design process. In this regard, an online workshop was conducted with 19 fourth-year interior architecture students in Istanbul Bilgi University and a "dance" performance was used as a form finding case due to the variety of movements presented in. Form finding, which is a complex design problem in its nature, was detached from its context, thus encouraging the design thinking based solely on dance geometry. Just as the name of the workshop "Kinematic", which is defined as the "geometry of movement", suggests, the meaning and the affecting forces of the dance performance were stripped. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, participants watched the 1-minute dance video and asked to prepare a 3D model based on their short-term memory. In the second phase, the participants were asked to repeat the representation whilst video was played in a loop. Final results were analyzed according to Laban Movement Analysis. Feedback from the participants were collected via text, questionnaire and oral explanations and analyzed via qualitative data analysis. Outcomes of two phases demonstrated differences due to mental imagery, material selection and interpretation. When compared with the computational model, which was developed with the movement data, outcomes of the second phase had more representative power while the first phase left more space to interpretation and creativity. Some commentary on the online workshop process is also given in the paper.
Keywords: Interactive Design, Dance, Movement Model, Form Finding, Design Education.
10. User Interactive Wall Design Using Music Data
S. Ayça Metin
Metin, S. A. (2021). User ınteractive wall design using music data. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 173-198. https://doi.org/10.53710/jcode.969320
Throughout history, the discipline of music and architecture have emulated each other. These imitations fed and carried both branches of art further. With the development of computational design methods in the era of digitalization, these imitations have been replaced by more homogeneous, interdisciplinary studies by blurring the line between both branches of art. This study is about visualizing the fluid structure of music on a wall, which is an architectural element. Within the scope of the study, a user and music interactive wall was designed by taking the amplitude data of the music that is activated by the user's touch and played in the environment at the sequence of user interaction, and using this data as the input of the cellular automata rule sets. This designed wall consists of equal panels, and as the user touches these panels, bringing the cells to life. The wall panels that have become alive are represented with a unique color code for each user. By using the neighborhood relations of a cellular automaton, a single wall panel, which is affected by the user, can display an expanding and damping character on the neighbor wall panels in direct proportion to the increase and decrease of the music amplitude. At this point, the cellular automaton has been used as an intermediary instrument to represent sound waves. The motives that are visualized in a continuous motion with music and user interaction, are examined under the concept of emergence. The design was coded in the node-based visual command interface Blueprint and, the simulation is running in Unreal Engine 4.26. It is hoped that this preliminary study can become a form-finding tool for further studies beyond just the visualization of music.
Keywords: Musical Interaction, Interactive Exhibition, Cellular Automata, Music and Architecture, Emergence
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Istanbul Technical University | Faculty of Architecture