2. Measuring in Design
Gülen Çağdaş, Sema Alaçam, Ethem Gürer
Erhan Sevinç, Sema Alaçam
Sevinç, E, Alaçam, S. (2021). Mereological Framework for Evaluating Architectural Object. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 1-26.
Along with the developing technology, with the emergence of a reality independent of the human mind, mathematics is providing us with much more participatory opportunities to us with regards to informatics. Also capturing the human-being himself as an object, the computational design covers a world that all the participant actors are objects themselves. The objects are the essential ontological units of the universe. Hereby, generating from this specific notion, this paper focuses on a new emerging poetica devoted to object. Accordingly, it aspires after the architectural object to be formed by new paradigms, while becoming an entity that can be fully perceived by its tangible and true characters. Therewithal, the paper investigates the potential of the object-oriented aspects as an alternative and subsidiary architectural agenda. Not only aiming to consist a definition, but also intending to present a conceptual proposal in order to develop the experiments, the terminology, and the fundamentals in the context of architectural discipline. At this juncture, two queries belonging to object emerges: First, what components does object consist of? The second, what does object constitute? Those queries that are both internal and external object-oriented, are formed through ontological definitions that belongs to parts and the whole, and architectural interactions are questioned based on according to the improved parts definitions. This paper aims to present a framework that could manage to theocratize by its forms the various ontological definitions of the ‘part’ and the architectural relations with regards to parts. At the same time, it searches for what the architecture could be able to capture in terms of parts and wholes. In this context, mereology, that could be defined as the form based partial knowledge, proposes a computational aspect on the analysis of architectural form and mathematical possibilities. It constitutes digital compositions, by means of varying design strategies in range of partto-part and peer-to-peer. Form, gains a character that could be mentioned as the resonance of the parts. Along with it, this paper, aims a harmonic design-construction process from the concept of part to the digital material. Furthermore, the paper presents an investigation of a conceptual foundation that allows interactions in between machinehuman being by means of axiomatic aspects.
Keywords: Object Oriented Ontology, Mereology, Discrete, Decentralization, Digital Theory.
4. A Hermeneutical Framework Drawn with Measurement Theories to Extend Design Evaluation
Deniz Oskay, Ethem Gürer
Oskay, D., Gürer, E. (2021). A Hermeneutical Framework Drawn with Measurement
Theories to Extend Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 27- 46.
In the 21st century, it can be argued that measurement is considered as the basis of all experimental and theoretical researches including human sciences such as sociology and psychology and natural sciences both physical and life sciences, whereas design process can be considered both in the field of human sciences and natural sciences due to its cross-disciplinary and multilayered constitution. The lexicological history of the Greek word ‘metrein’ confirms that design evaluation includes measurement inherently since ‘metrein’ conveys measurement as evaluation and judgment. Thus, discussing the design evaluation obviously necessitates discussions about measurement as well and a cross-disciplinary approach should be adopted for such an endeavor, considering the importance of measurement in design evaluation. There are different approaches to design processes offered by many pioneers of the field such as Alexander (1964) and Archer (1968). This plurality of proposals shows that there is not a singular and absolute consistency while supporting the ambiguous nature of design processes. Design evaluation can be regarded as one of the most ambiguous design sub-processes since it both includes objective evaluations and analysis, yet it includes subjective understandings such as interpretation and abstraction as well. Measurement activity emerges in disparate stages of the design process, such as doing site surveying, calculating project budget and feasibility studies can be considered as objective measurements and making questionnaires, site queries and sustainability outcomes as subjective measurements. Depending on this fact, design evaluation can be regarded as one of the most controversial design sub-processes in terms of its measurability because of the co-occurrence of objectivity and subjectivity. In this regard, the paper aims to clarify a hermeneutical framework to expand the design evaluation process with theories from measurement science since the studies in measurement science can guide the measurement activity in the design evaluation with its constitution of a clear understanding of information and its qualitative features. By doing so, both objective and subjective understandings in the design evaluation are addressed with a hermeneutical process for clarification of the evaluation within the dual nature of hermeneutics. Therefore, a hermeneutical design evaluation process is formulated by using the understanding of measurement theories since they are implicitly active in design evaluation. This paper proposes to retake the problem of measurability, specifically through an examination of evaluation processes, to show that evaluative actions in design processes can and must be re-formulated with the understanding of theories of measurement science and hermeneutics to build up a holistic and integrated negotiation of quantitative and qualitative information in the design evaluation process.
Keywords: Design evaluation, Design process, Hermeneutics, Measurement Science.
5. Interpretation and Types in Design Process as Measuring Instrument
Meryem Nurefşan Yabanigül
Yabanigül, M. N. (2021). Interpretation and Types in Design Process as Measuring Instrument. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 47-66
In this article, the design is examined as a whole of different steps of knowledge and the established relationships between these steps by continuously expanding and processing knowledge, along a path that consists of an interrogative point of view and solution-seeking actions. The design process has a cyclical movement in which the product and its approach to the product are constantly questioned and re-measured with the chain of doing-understanding-interpretation. In the chain of doing understanding interpretation, the beginning or end of the actions can not be limited, each step is related to each other at every moment. However, it is necessary to divide the process into stages into studies conducted to understand the design process and the relationships it establishes. In our article, the stages of the design process determined by the researchers and the relationships established between these stages with interpretation are tried to be analyzed. In the studies in the literature, the interpretation in the design process is expressed with a different concept in each research. As a result of the literature review, the design process, its stages, and the relationships they have
established through interpretation have been reconstructed and considered independent of a specific design process. In this article, interpretation within the design process is divided into multiple types with different functions as interpretation, discovering, reasoning and reflection; and the stages of the design process specified as defined knowledge, pre-knowledge, mental representation, doing by playing, physical representation, design proposal, and design solution. Mental representations are images, relationships, and associations which are the synthesis of the pre-knowledge of the designer and the defined design knowledge through interpretation. Images become concrete by transferring them to the physical environment by doing by playing, and they allow new questions to be produced with discovery, which is considered as a type of interpretation, and new questions are transferred back to mental representation. The cycle of doing by playing, discovering, creating questions, and transferring back to mental representation, supports the formation of knowledge and hypothesis. Controlled trials of the physical representations are produced by interpreting the revealed knowledge and hypotheses. The design proposal is measured with reflective thinking and new hypotheses and questions are produced and re-included in the process from different steps. The design result is the physical representation aimed at explaining the knowledge sets established by the design process. The design process has the potential to continue infinitely by seeking solutions to new hypotheses and questions it generates. The design process ends with responding to all the requirements of the design problem and its boundaries by establishing meaningful knowledge relationships. Interpretation types are considered as a form of measurement for transferring, developing, and defining the knowledge obtained from the tests of hypotheses and the solutions of the questions in the design process. The article explains the stages of the process and the relationships they establish with interpretation through diagrams.
Keywords: Design Process, Cognition, Hermeneutics, Interpretation, Measurement.
6. Integrating User Experience Knowledge into Early Architectural Design Processes through Machine Learning
Bilge Şapcı, Şule Taşlı Pektaş
Şapcı, B. & Taşlı Pektaş, Ş. (2021). Integrating User Experience Knowledge into Early Architectural Design Processes through Machine Learning. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 67-94.
Artificial intelligence refers to intelligence that can be processed by machines and software. This technology enables the simulation of human intelligence through machines programmed to think like a human and imitate actions (Frankenfield, 2020). Artificial intelligence, developed to perceive, learn, and imitate human intelligence, is divided into many subheadings focusing on different areas. Machine learning, one of these titles, is defined as the process used to program artificial intelligence algorithms for continuous learning. Furthermore, these algorithms can make informed decisions according to what they learn from processed data (Grossfeld, 2020). Although machine learning has been widely used in areas like user experience (UX) design, it has not been applied extensively in architecture, yet. Therefore, this study aims to examine previous studies on machine learning in the field of UX for adapting their findings to user-environment relationships in architecture. In the article, a discussion is presented for collecting and processing user data to inform decisions in early architectural design processes using machine learning. In this way, it will be possible to determine and measure qualities such as effectiveness, efficiency, the relationship between user and space, and space quality in design. The manuscript is structured as follows. Firstly, the working mechanism of machine learning and how it is used in user experience studies are explained. Secondly, in line with the related literature, the intersections of user experience design and architecture fields are explored. In the conclusion, a discussion on how the utilization of this technology in early design processes can affect the human-space relationships and the future of architecture is presented.
Keywords: Architectural Design, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, User Experience.
7. Effect of Experience and Sketching on Design Productivity in the Early Phases of Architectural Design
Erdal Kondakcı, Hakan Tong
Kondakcı, E. & Tong, H. (2021). Effect of Experience and Sketching on Design Productivity in the Early Phases of Architectural Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 95-136.
Within the scope of this paper, in order to observe the effect of experience and sketching on design productivity in architectural design, the early design phase is examined where architects generate ideas with creative visual thinking by sketching to make the main design decisions. In this context, two different experience groups were identified to observe the effect of experience in the early phases of architectural design, and design studies were carried out with two participants from each of these experience groups. The first group consists of senior architecture students who are considered as novice, while the second group consists of people with 8-10 years of professional architectural experience who are considered as experienced. Participants were asked to generate a design proposal to the same architectural design problem through sketching. After design problem and participants were determined, protocol studies were carried out with participants who are using think-aloud method while sketching to produce a design proposal to the given problem, and their design processes were recorded by camera. Firstly, the verbal expressions obtained from video recordings of each participant’s design process were transcribed and segmented as design moves, then coded according to sketching action. While parsing design moves, the designer’s verbal expressions and sketches are evaluated together and focused on design decisions that change the course of the design process by little thought changes. In this way, microlevel design decisions that lead to spatial, functional, and formal changes in the design process have been identified as design moves. Linkographs were constructed by determining the links between design moves. The link between two design moves is determined by the content of the moves. All design moves are examined one by one by querying whether each design move is contextually linked to previous moves. Design productivity of each participant were determined through individual design process analysis by using linkographs. Finally, comparative analyses of design productivity, within each experience group and between groups, was included. As a result of protocol studies and linkograph analyses, important findings have been reached revealing the effect of experience and sketching on design productivity in the early design phase.
Accordingly, it has been seen that besides the general architectural experience that participants have, the experience on the specific problem area (housing design) is significant for the emergence of design productivity. Having the problem-specific experience affects design productivity positively in both senior architecture students’ group and experienced architects’ group. Another important result is that the experience of the participants and their rate of sketching in the design processes are parallel. In this context, it has been observed that the participants having more experience have a higher rate of sketching by using sketch medium more efficiently, and they generate a great majority of their design ideas through sketching. It has been observed that the high rate of sketching associated with experience affects positively to link index, critical move rate and linking pattern rates which are used to determine design productivity in linkograph analyses, and consequently contributes to occur a
productive design process.
Keywords: Design Cognition, Design Expertise, Sketching, Protocol Analysis, Linkograpghy.
8. Analysis of Production Processes through Comparison of Written and Visual Directive: Origami Study
Nurdan Akman, Ethem Gürer
Akman, N. & Gürer, E. (2021). Analysis of Production Processes through Comparison of Written and Visual Directive: Origami Study. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 137-160.
People try to live in constantly changing scales and different contexts. Individuals are influenced by the environment, society and culture during his/her actions as well as affecting all of these. Changing in context pushes the person and changing in person pushes to context to a continious transformation. We can see these actions clearly in design and production processes as we can see them in every aspect of our daily life. The act of production has been transferred from the traditional to the present through verbal, written, visual or applied expression methods, and thus action areas have become more open to development over time. Two groups, namely the implementer and the narrator, can be mentioned for the actions learned in accordance with a method and developed by the process. This study was created to investigate the effect of narrator's narration method on the production process. In the study, it is aimed to analyze the meaning created by the narration in the mind of the implementer with an experiment in the context of the production process by associating it with the phenomenology and hermeneutics concepts. For the analysis of the specified situation, the origami study was chosen as an action because it can be explained with visual and written expression methods and the instruction steps can be followed. This study basically consists of four steps. The work stages can be defined as researching concepts, determining the method and instruction sets, the findings obtained from the participants' physical production according to the instructions, and the analysis of the production processes of the participants, respectively. The findings obtained from the experiment participants within the scope of the study were visualized by the linkographic analysis method. Thus, the qualitative experimental results have gained a feature that can be followed by relational networks. In the study, written expression methods were more effective when describing actions such as 'turning' or 'flipping'. However, in complex productions, it has been observed that visual expression is more descriptive than descriptive written expression. At the same time, the fact that the information given is critical information rather than excessive information given in a narration process creates a more explanatory production process for practitioners. It was concluded that the narrative method should be chosen according to the subject to be explained in the study.
Keywords: Hermeneutics, Origami, Phenomenological Research Method, Production Process, Written-Visual Expression Techniques
9. Drawing as a Communication Tool Through Relation Between Seeing and Drawing
Aktaş, B. (2021). Drawing as a Communication Tool Through Relation Between Seeing and Drawing. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 161-188.
Since the second half of the last century, studies carried out on acts of seeing and thinking. it is understood that seeing (vision) and thinking cannot be regarded as separate from each other and they are holistic components of each other. Visual Thinking Theory is developing as a result of the studies in this field. On the other hand, with the studies conducted in the field of design cognition, it is seen how the design processes progress and how drawing and sketching are effective tools in this process. With these studies emphasizing that design progresses in the interaction of visual perception and mental imagination in a dialectical cycle. The relationship between seeing and thinking is understood through drawing. In addition, it is seen that drawing is not only a communication tool, but also an information-rich visual communication method that is effective in the formation, transmission, and representation of thought, and includes its own communication system and dictionary. For this purpose, in this study on drawing as a communication tool through the relationship between seeing and drawing, the participants are evaluated with the relationship between understanding and explanation, which has an important place in the reconstruction of information from the drawings they make by copying. However, it is also known that visual perception is not only a perception of the moment of vision, but also a priori information related to the individual's other senses, experiences and past. In this study, which was carried out with the aim of changing the existing perceptions of students who are new to design education and gaining new perspectives, the aim of this study was to improve students' vision. It is seen that this can be understood by emphasizing the process of observing and understanding the relationships that the participants find in the visual, establishing new relationships, transferring them to the drawing and explaining them. Within the scope of this study, first-year architecture and interior architecture students work with the Appropriation method. In this method, which is also considered as reproduction that students are expected to redraw an existing work. With this method, the artist finds its own representation method and language over time while producing directly as copying. This study conducted as two main methods of four sub-groups in total and consisting of five-minute sessions. While Method 1 is to give the images of figurative and abstract painting as colored, Method 2 is to give the images of figurative and abstract painting as black and white. The drawings made later were evaluated within the scope of six criteria. This study was carried out as a preliminary study to determine the processes and methods that should be followed in the development of a new drawing tool in design education as well as features that the drawing tool should have. In this way, it is aimed to collect data that will be needed in the production of digital tools that will mimic the see-move-see behavior specific to the human designer. That will enable the human designer to benefit from the a priori knowledge he has in the decision-making process, and most importantly, will support the development of the student's design ability in design education.
Keywords: Communication, Visual Thinking Theory, Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, Drawing.
10. Measurement of the Designed and Perceived Uncanny Concept on the Void and Light in Architecture
Kısmet, B. (2021). Measurement of the Designed and Perceived Uncanny Concept on the Void and Light in Architecture. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 189-216.
Uncanny, which has been the subject of philosophy since the 19th century, has evolved into a different dimension from the meanings imposed on it in previous times, with Sigmund Freud's work on uncanny in the 20th century; he defined “unheimlich” term in German as “the return of the repressed, in fact, is everything revealed as a secret or even though it should remain veiled”; he has related the uncanny with the concepts of mother - child - birth - death and the unconscious (Freud, 2003; Jentsch, 1906/2008; Vidler, 1992). Horror and the moment of shock in horror are important factors in uncanny; as it is the name given to the situation being in danger without preparation; emphasizes the surprise factor. The moment of being mute speechless and the concept of ambiguity, which feed the uncanny and uncanny state, has been handled in different dimensions by artists, designers and architects. The components of uncanny and especially the potentials of different perceptions and meanings that ambiguity will create in the human mind in the field of art is a design factor that has been applied consciously, especially since the twentieth century. In this study, the notions of void and light in architecture will be questioned. The effect of the void and light on the uncanny character of architectural spaces is questioned in three stages in the content of the study: In the first stage, within the scope of the literature research, three examples in which the visual and spatial parameters of the uncanny of space and light are questioned in two and three dimensions are examined according to this study, general character of the uncanny in the architectural space is defined. De Chirico’s ghosted city representations from 1910s, Le Corbusier’s Villa La Roche and Daniel Libeskind’s Berlin Jewish Museum are discussed and interpreted uncanny from perspective of designed void and light. In the second stage of this paper, the question of how human consciousness expresses the uncanny through abstract representations in a phenomenological path is taken into consideration and a survey is conducted with a defined group of subjects. The survey is a set of different sections that are created with a simple drawing technique without any details. While creating these representations, people's minds did not include lines that evoke pre-meanings and personal memories; simple and ambiguous linear representations are created and asked from the group to interpret the uncanny as it is perceived. The third and final stage includes the interpretation of the survey results, and aims to reach a holistic representation of "architectural uncanny" with the distinction of "designed uncanny" and "perceived uncanny" from a wider perspective.
Keywords: Uncanny, Sigmund Freud, Void, Light, Measurement.
11. Being the Next Proto: An Investigation of Proto-Scale with 3D Voxels at the Intersection of Architecture and Fashion Design
Serdar Aydın, Zehra Aysel
Aydın, S. & Aysel, Z. (2021). Being the Next Proto: An Investigation of Proto-Scale with 3D Voxels at the Intersection of Architecture and Fashion Design. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 217-242.
Pursuing an interdisciplinary design approach that blends different tastes of aesthetic phenomena requires to address the key challenges of working at multiple scales and measures to design inquiries. The concept of measuring in design creates a shared area of discussion between architecture and fashion design. Interrogating cosmetic analogies of surfaces in search of form creates important research areas for experimental design at the intersection of the both fields. Instead, this work underlines the advanced digital methods used for measuring tectonic and volumetric qualities unified in architectural and fashion design. First of all, the paper distinguishes surface-based analogies and volumetric tests in a virtually chronological timeline. Previous works develop an understanding of evanescent digital objectivity that cause loss of scale and but also adaptive measuring, which help conceive non-linearity for complex design briefs. This article seeks adaptive measuring capabilities of self-sustained 3D voxel representation in architectural and fashion design. In our preliminary investigations, voxel is addressed as a digital object which is able to generate new configurations of space-time in architecture and fashion design that ontologically prioritise human over other objects of design processes while creating spatial expressions within individual and social zones. By that, the present study pursues a new representative unit of computational design thinking in architecture and fashion design that execute measuring tools and methods for nonstandard outcome. The purpose of examining voxel is to generate a new digital measurement unit from basic cellular geometries in order for producing adaptive sequences between wearable and spatial experiments. To initially implement practical experiments, relational adaptive behaviours of 3D voxel are linked with cellular automata rules. In our experiments, 3D voxel is an analysis unit as well as relational and proto-measurement component that enables design decisions regarding space. A variety of model generations are produced in association with the 3D voxel geometry being the next proto-measurement unit of computational architecture and fashion design thinking. In this way, the work offers a number of possibilities to develop new product semantics and aesthetics that emerge during design process. Therefore, this research explores the productive potential of three-dimensional computational design thinking.
Keywords: Architecture and fashion design, 3D voxel, measuring, design research, cellular automata.
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12. Agent-based Modeling for User Movements using Fuzzy Logic
Berfin Yıldız, Gülen Çağdaş
Yıldız, B. & Cağdaş, G. (2021). Agent-based Modeling for User Movements using Fuzzy. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 243-264.
The distance between designer and user gradually increases due to the growing complexity of design processes. It makes difficult to take the user experience into consideration in design. Computational models in which users are represented as autonomous decision-making entities, help to simulate user movement. In this regard, the development of these models supports decision-making in the early stages of urban design. This study aims to analyze how the user get involved in urban space, and to examine the relationship between urban space components and the users’ movement to develop a model for simulating user movement. Collecting the data using fixed point observation and environmental analysis; Data inference with fuzzy logic; Development of the agent-based model; Implementation of the model; Evaluation and Validation are the steps followed by this article. Data inference with fuzzy logic represents the process of calculation attractiveness value which is the relationship between the user and urban space components. Afterwards, the value is determined as attract force on the simulation model. İzmir Konak Square has been chosen as the case study area. Two different simulation models, morning and evening, are defined and implemented to simulate the movement in different timelines. Then, the simulation outputs and observation data are compared with the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Secant Cosine Calculation methods to be able to examine the model efficiency.
Keywords: Agent-based modeling, Fuzzy Logic, User movement, Simulation
13. Wayfinding in Digital Spaces Through Abstract Information Layers: Virtual Museums
Esranur Demirtaş, Ethem Gürer
Demirtaş, E, Gürer, E. (2021). Dijital Mekanda Yön Bulma Etkinliğinin Soyut Bilgi Katmanlari Üzerinden Ölçümü: Sanal Müze Örneği. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 265-284 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/857379
Spaces are generally designed for different needs in terms of functional, environmental, social and psychological aspects. A clearer intelligibility of the space by the user also positively affects the landscape of action and behavior within the space; and therefore, the most efficient use of the space is directly associated with the user's success in finding their way within that space. These may be the locations of the walls, horizontal and vertical circulation areas that are directly related to the interior organization of the space; graphic sign elements added to the space later, natural sign elements in the outer periphery of the space. There may be elements such as regions previously defined with their use for a specific purpose and the boundaries of the space. On the other hand, today's digital platforms, where the body that experiences space in a physical sense melts into existence, allows the interaction of body, space and time in flexible and dynamic ways through representation frames. In this sense, the digital space experience can bring together different layers of information about the space with the user and thus provide the user with a clearer base about the spatial experience and use of space. The digital wayfinding experience of the space does not include a spesific target in the space, but it includes a spontaneous tour in the virtual museum, so that this experience type will not stricted to a spesific route. This study aims to question the wayfinding activity of the user in spatial experiences designed and presented with digital interfaces through abstract information layers in different virtual museum experiences selected with different qualities. In this context, abstact information layers used in various virtual museums have been analyzed and listed. In the selection of museums, museums with multiple abstract information layers were selected, museums with low abstract information layers and museums similar to selected museums were eliminated. Rijksmuseum, Museo Thyssen, Smithsonian National Museum of National History, Picasso Museum, Çırağan Palace, Arkas Art Center and Renwick Art Gallery were examined in the category of virtual reproduction of the real structure of the museum. In the category of reproducing an imaginary structure the British Museum, Picasso Museum, Contemporary Istanbul and Voma museums and independent online exhibition venues Artsteps, Kunstmatrix, Sketchfab were examined. As a result of the evaluations, it is aimed to produce outputs regarding the interface designs of the layers that are intended to be added outside these layers and their possible contents.
Keywords: Abstract Information Layers, Measurement, Spatial Readability, Virtual Museum, Wayfinding.
14. Phenomenological Evaluation on Wayfinding in Complex Educational Buildings: The Case of ITU Faculty of Architecture
Çavuş, Ö. (2021). Phenomenological Evaluation on Wayfinding in Complex Educational Buildings: The Case of ITU Faculty of Architecture. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 285-312. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/862422
Orientation programs have a significant role in the adaptation of novice students to the faculty building. These programs are mostly prepared by faculty staff or authority figures who have already known the building, so they may not descend to those inexperienced in the faculty. Even if students are informed about the places in these programs, it can still be hard to find places, particularly in complex educational buildings, until they get used to them. Hence, experience-based approaches facilitating wayfinding are needed to cope with the problem. This research aims to reveal the reasons for confusion and reference points students take in wayfinding through phenomenological evaluation of the building. Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Faculty of Architecture is selected as a case study due to its complexity in wayfinding. A head-mounted GoPro is placed to twenty novice students and ten senior students as a control group, and students are asked to find a target point and return to the initial point following the shortest path. The obtained results are then evaluated according to the measuring techniques proposed by Moles (2004) since the measurement needs to answer ill-defined situations obtained from experiences. The visual recordings of participants are compared regarding the architectural mass. Therefore, comparison and equality judgment, contrast or antinomy, and weight coefficient techniques are particularly utilized among the provided techniques. Beyond the expected data, the results of the study provide information about the factors, methods, and priorities that are effective in decision making. This research would contribute to the literature showing how the data set is created based on users' direct experience in wayfinding in complex educational buildings
Keywords: Wayfinding, Orientation Programs, Phenomenology and Hermeneutics in Wayfinding, Educational Buildings.
15. An Evaluation Model for the Resilience of Public Spaces during Covid-19 Pandemic
Çiçek, S. (2021). Kamusal Mekânların Covid-19 Pandemisi’ne Karşı Dayanıklılığını Değerlendirme Modeli. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 313-334. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/869974
The public spaces which are essential for modern, resilient social urban life can only serve for the needs of the common ground as long as it contains vitality sensation, adequacy, accessibility and control (Lynch, 2012).However with the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, humanity realized that the public spaces are not resilient enough to react the sudden changes and necessities. The public accessibility to those spaces in normal circumstances had taken granted, however today the use of the public spaces is only possible when it satisfies the needs of the new normal such as social distance. In this context, pandemic resilient healthy and at the same time social space can only exist with the space configurations made regarding the social distance concept or the evaluation of the existing ones according to the new rules of pandemic. At this point the offered model proposes a pandemic resiliency evaluation for the public spaces that are the most essential and unavoidable for our daily routines such as supermarkets. The theory of Space Syntax first proposed by Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson in the book called ‘The Social logic of Space’ offers a Visibility Graph Analysis (VGA) for evaluating how visibility of spac e affect the user perception, therefore movement created inside the space. Using the outcomes of the Visibility Graph Analysis with Pedsim Pro, a Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino for mass motion simulation, will give us to chance to elaborate the results and therefore determining the risky, non-resilient zones in those spaces in pandemic conditions to develop better alternative spatial configurations.
Keywords: Covid-19, Mass Motion Simulation, Post Pandemic Public Space, Resilience, Space Syntax.
16. Measuring Architecture and Urban Fabric: The Case of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes
Mario Lodeweik Lionar, Özgür Ediz
Lionar, M., Ediz, Ö. (2021). Measuring Architecture and Urban Fabric: The Case of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 335-354. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/852307
Located in the District of Zeyrek in Istanbul, Turkey, the İstanbul Manifaturacılar Çarşısı (İMÇ) or Manifaturacılar Retail Center İstanbul by Doğan Tekeli, Sami Sisa, and Metin Hepgüler, and the Sosyal Sigortalar Kurumu (SSK) or Social Security Agency Complex by Sedad Hakkı Eldem are regarded as two of the most prime examples representing the major shift in the development of Turkish contemporary architecture in the 1960s. As opposed to the trend of single monolithic buildings characterizing the previous era of International Style, these two complexes offered a new formal approach in which new, large building complexes were articulated into smaller fragments. Dubbed as the “small, multipart approach”, this strategy was—and is—perceived as an appropriate strategy to generate new type of architecture considered more sensitive and respectful to the smaller urban fabric of the older, traditional Turkish neighborhood as the historical context. This paper measures this very relationship between architecture and urban fabric by utilizing fractal dimension analysis to calculate the visual complexities of the İMÇ and the SSK Complexes and the urban fabric of District of Zeyrek adjacent to these two complexes, represented in the form of block plan drawings, in a comparative manner. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the formal relationship between these two complexes and the surrounding urban fabric in terms of the visual complexities in a mathematically measurable manner.
Keywords: Doğan Tekeli-Sami Sisa-Metin Hepgüler, Fractal Dimension analysisfor urban fabric, İMÇ Complex, Sedad Hakkı Eldem, SSK Complex.
17. Measuring Urban Activities: A Review for Methods for Evidence Informed Urban Planning and Design
Balaban, Ö . (2021). Measuring Urban Activities. Journal of Computational Design, 2(1), 355-376. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jcode/issue/60846/866398
Successful urban planning and design projects require planners to make assumptions about users and use cases for urban spaces. Therefore, urban planners need to capture activities that happen in the urban spaces. Traditionally, planners relied on surveys and observation to capture urban activities. However, with technological advances, urban planners can access spatiotemporal data covering longer periods of time and space. In this paper, we review the data sources that can be used to measure urban activities under four sections: traditional methods, data from static sensors, data from mobile sensors, and big data. Although the data sources discussed have great potential for recording urban activity, there are challanges such as privacy issues, sampling limitations, lack of knowledge of the context and the need for technical infrastructure. In order to benefit from these data sources successfully, more efforts are needed such as improving the data accuracy, combining different methods to infer the context, making different collaborations to create technical infrastructure or purchasing the data readily.
Keywords: Big data, Evidence Informed Urban Planning and Design, Data Collection, Measuring Urban Activity.
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